Browse All Articles > Rounding values up, down, by 4/5, or to significant figures

This collection of functions covers all the normal rounding methods of just about any numeric value - at extreme precision.

In many areas, rounding that accurately follows specific rules are needed - accounting, statistics, insurance, etc.

Unfortunately, the native functions of VBA that can perform rounding are either missing, limited, inaccurate, or buggy, and all address only a single rounding method. The upside is that they are fast, and that may in some situations be important.

However, often precision is mandatory, and with the speed of computers today, a little slower processing will hardly be noticed, indeed not for processing of single values. All the functions presented here run at about 1 µs.

They cover the normal rounding methods:

- Round down, with the option to round negative values towards zero
- Round up, with the option to round negative values away from zero
- Round by 4/5, either
*away from zero*or*to even*(Banker's Rounding) - Round to a count of significant figures

The first three functions accept all the numeric data types, while the last exists in three varieties - for Currency, Decimal, and Double respectively.

They all accept a specified count of decimals - including a *negative *count which will round to tens, hundreds, etc. Those with Variant as return type will return Null for incomprehensible input.

More than ten years ago, *Donald Lessau *created a site dealing with Visual Basic issues: __VBspeed__. One of these issues was to create a replacement for *Round *which was (and still is) buggy, though fast. Also, it could (and still can) only perform Banker's Rounding which may not be what you expect when you look for 4/5 rounding. Several suggestions were put forward, one extremely simple using Format; but string handling, as it is, is not very fast, so other solutions were thought out, all more or less wrapped around* Int(Value + 0.5). *They can all be found __here__.

If you are convinced that *Round *is not buggy, just try this simple example:

```
RoundedValue = Round(32.675, 2)
```

It will return 32.67 while both a normal 4/5 rounding as well as Banker's Rounding would return 32.68.

Today, computers are much faster, and while Round is very fast, it will in many cases be preferable with a function that is a bit slower if it on the other hand always returns the expected result.

So - from these old contributions - I've brushed up the old 4/5 rounding function with an option for choosing Banker's Rounding, and added sibling functions for rounding up or down (also with options) with focus on the ability to correctly handle as wide a range of input values as possible. Still, they run at about 1 µs. Finally, for completeness and because it is quite different from the other functions, a function for rounding to significant figures was added.

It's important to stress, that there is no *right *or *wrong *rounding method, thus it makes no sense to argue why *Mid Rounding away from zero* is "better" than *Banker's Rounding*. What's important, however, is to know how each method operates, so you can choose the optimum method for the current task.

It can be useful to list examples that shows the differences between the different rounding methods and how they act upon positive as well as negative values. Here are just a few:

rounding method | value n | |||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

12.344 | 12.345 | 12.346 | 12.354 | 12.355 | 12.356 | |

RoundUp(n, 2, False) | 12.35 | 12.35 | 12.35 | 12.36 | 12.36 | 12.36 |

RoundUp(n, 2, True) | 12.35 | 12.35 | 12.35 | 12.36 | 12.36 | 12.36 |

RoundDown(n, 2, False) | 12.34 | 12.34 | 12.34 | 12.35 | 12.35 | 12.35 |

RoundDown(n, 2, True) | 12.34 | 12.34 | 12.34 | 12.35 | 12.35 | 12.35 |

RoundMid(n, 2, False) | 12.34 | 12.35 | 12.35 | 12.35 | 12.36 | 12.36 |

RoundMid(n, 2, True) | 12.34 | 12.34 | 12.35 | 12.35 | 12.36 | 12.36 |

RoundSignificantDec(n, 4, , False) | 12.34 | 12.35 | 12.35 | 12.35 | 12.36 | 12.36 |

RoundSignificantDec(n, 4, , True) | 12.34 | 12.34 | 12.35 | 12.35 | 12.36 | 12.36 |

-12.344 | -12.345 | -12.346 | -12.354 | -12.355 | -12.356 | |

RoundUp(n, 2, False) | -12.34 | -12.34 | -12.34 | -12.35 | -12.35 | -12.35 |

RoundUp(n, 2, True) | -12.35 | -12.35 | -12.35 | -12.36 | -12.36 | -12.36 |

RoundDown(n, 2, False) | -12.35 | -12.35 | -12.35 | -12.36 | -12.36 | -12.36 |

RoundDown(n, 2, True) | -12.34 | -12.34 | -12.34 | -12.35 | -12.35 | -12.35 |

RoundMid(n, 2, False) | -12.34 | -12.35 | -12.35 | -12.35 | -12.36 | -12.36 |

RoundMid(n, 2, True) | -12.34 | -12.34 | -12.35 | -12.35 | -12.36 | -12.36 |

RoundSignificantDec(n, 4, , False) | -12.34 | -12.35 | -12.35 | -12.35 | -12.36 | -12.36 |

RoundSignificantDec(n, 4, , True) | -12.34 | -12.34 | -12.35 | -12.35 | -12.36 | -12.36 |

More examples can be found in the two modules in the code with suffix *Test*.

The main function - rounding by 4/5 - goes like this. Please note the in-line comments for details:

```
' Common constants.
'
' Base values.
Public Const Base2 As Double = 2
Public Const Base10 As Double = 10
' Rounds Value by 4/5 with count of decimals as specified with parameter NumDigitsAfterDecimal.
'
' Rounds to integer if NumDigitsAfterDecimal is zero.
'
' Rounds correctly Value until max/min value limited by a Scaling of 10
' raised to the power of (the number of decimals).
'
' Uses CDec() to prevent bit errors of reals.
'
' Execution time is about 1µs.
'
' 2018-02-09. Gustav Brock, Cactus Data ApS, CPH.
'
Public Function RoundMid( _
ByVal Value As Variant, _
Optional ByVal NumDigitsAfterDecimal As Long, _
Optional ByVal MidwayRoundingToEven As Boolean) _
As Variant
Dim Scaling As Variant
Dim Half As Variant
Dim ScaledValue As Variant
Dim ReturnValue As Variant
' Only round if Value is numeric and ReturnValue can be different from zero.
If Not IsNumeric(Value) Then
' Nothing to do.
ReturnValue = Null
ElseIf Value = 0 Then
' Nothing to round.
' Return Value as is.
ReturnValue = Value
Else
Scaling = CDec(Base10 ^ NumDigitsAfterDecimal)
If Scaling = 0 Then
' A very large value for NumDigitsAfterDecimal has minimized scaling.
' Return Value as is.
ReturnValue = Value
ElseIf MidwayRoundingToEven Then
' Banker's rounding.
If Scaling = 1 Then
ReturnValue = Round(Value)
Else
' First try with conversion to Decimal to avoid bit errors for some reals like 32.675.
' Very large values for NumDigitsAfterDecimal can cause an out-of-range error when dividing.
On Error Resume Next
ScaledValue = Round(CDec(Value) * Scaling)
ReturnValue = ScaledValue / Scaling
If Err.Number <> 0 Then
' Decimal overflow.
' Round Value without conversion to Decimal.
ReturnValue = Round(Value * Scaling) / Scaling
End If
End If
Else
' Standard 4/5 rounding.
' Very large values for NumDigitsAfterDecimal can cause an out-of-range error when dividing.
On Error Resume Next
Half = CDec(0.5)
If Value > 0 Then
ScaledValue = Int(CDec(Value) * Scaling + Half)
Else
ScaledValue = -Int(-CDec(Value) * Scaling + Half)
End If
ReturnValue = ScaledValue / Scaling
If Err.Number <> 0 Then
' Decimal overflow.
' Round Value without conversion to Decimal.
Half = CDbl(0.5)
If Value > 0 Then
ScaledValue = Int(Value * Scaling + Half)
Else
ScaledValue = -Int(-Value * Scaling + Half)
End If
ReturnValue = ScaledValue / Scaling
End If
End If
If Err.Number <> 0 Then
' Rounding failed because values are near one of the boundaries of type Double.
' Return value as is.
ReturnValue = Value
End If
End If
RoundMid = ReturnValue
End Function
```

Using it requires nothing more than importing (or copy/paste) the module *RoundingMethods *included in the zip into your project. Then the functions can be used in a similar way that you would use *Round*:

```
RoundedValue = RoundMid(32.675, 2)
```

However, it performs a normal 4/5 by default, and optionally Banker's Rounding.

It is supplemented by the rounding up or down functions:

- RoundUp
- RoundDown

These act basically like *-Int(-n)* or *Int(n)* but also feature an option for rounding *away *from zero or *towards *zero respectively (see the example results above).

Rounding to *significant figures *is somewhat different, though scaling and rounding still is an essential part:

```
' Rounds Value to have significant figures as specified with parameter Digits.
'
' Performs no rounding if Digits is zero.
' Rounds to integer if NoDecimals is True.
' Digits can be any value between 1 and 14.
'
' Will accept values until about max/min Value of Double type.
' At extreme values (beyond approx. E+/-300) with significant
' figures of 10 and above, rounding is not 100% perfect due to
' the limited precision of Double.
'
' For rounding of values within the range of type Decimal, use the
' function RoundSignificantDec.
'
' Requires:
' Function Log10.
'
' 2018-02-09. Gustav Brock, Cactus Data ApS, CPH.
'
Public Function RoundSignificantDbl( _
ByVal Value As Double, _
ByVal Digits As Integer, _
Optional ByVal NoDecimals As Boolean, _
Optional ByVal MidwayRoundingToEven As Boolean) _
As Double
Dim Exponent As Double
Dim Scaling As Double
Dim Half As Variant
Dim ScaledValue As Variant
Dim ReturnValue As Double
' Only round if result can be different from zero.
If (Value = 0 Or Digits <= 0) Then
' Nothing to round.
' Return Value as is.
ReturnValue = Value
Else
' Calculate scaling factor.
Exponent = Int(Log10(Abs(Value))) + 1 - Digits
If NoDecimals = True Then
' No decimals.
If Exponent < 0 Then
Exponent = 0
End If
End If
Scaling = Base10 ^ Exponent
If Scaling = 0 Then
' A very large value for Digits has minimized scaling.
' Return Value as is.
ReturnValue = Value
Else
' Very large values for Digits can cause an out-of-range error when dividing.
On Error Resume Next
ScaledValue = CDec(Value / Scaling)
If Err.Number <> 0 Then
' Return value as is.
ReturnValue = Value
Else
' Perform rounding.
If MidwayRoundingToEven = False Then
' Round away from zero.
Half = CDec(Sgn(Value) / 2)
ReturnValue = CDbl(Fix(ScaledValue + Half)) * Scaling
Else
' Round to even.
ReturnValue = CDbl(Round(ScaledValue)) * Scaling
End If
If Err.Number <> 0 Then
' Rounding failed because values are near one of the boundaries of type Double.
' Return value as is.
ReturnValue = Value
End If
End If
End If
End If
RoundSignificantDbl = ReturnValue
End Function
' Returns Log 10 of Value.
'
' 2018-02-09. Gustav Brock, Cactus Data ApS, CPH.
'
Public Function Log10( _
ByVal Value As Double) _
As Double
' No error handling as this should be handled
' outside this function.
'
' Example:
'
' If MyValue > 0 then
' LogMyValue = Log10(MyValue)
' Else
' ' Do something else ...
' End If
Log10 = Log(Value) / Log(Base10)
End Function
```

For all functions, note that potential floating point errors are avoided by casting to Decimal with *CDec*.

If you wish to study the peculiars of the native *Round*, then study the module *RoundingMethodsTest *where a lot of values and results can be found. Also, should you wish to modify a function for your specific purpose, as a minimum it should pass the test included in the test module.

Also, a lot of variations is possible using the functions as a base.

For example, given the value n = 128.19:

Round to the nearest quarter (0.25):

```
RoundedValued = RoundMid(n / 0.25) * 0.25
RoundedValued -> 128.25
```

Round up to the nearest "bargain price"

```
RoundedValue = RoundUp(n) - 0.01
RoundedValue -> 128.99
```

Round to the nearest integer 5:

```
RoundedValue = RoundMid(n / 5) * 5
RoundedValue = 130.00
```

The current version can always be found at __GitHub__.

The version 1.3.2 demo files for Office 365 is here:

My other articles on rounding:

Round elements of a sum to match a totalRound by the power of two

I hope you found this article useful. You are encouraged to ask questions, report any bugs or make any other comments about it below.

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## Comments (2)

Author

Commented:/gustav

PS: There are minor flaws in the layout but the editor is somewhat strange so I couldn't get it completely straight.

Commented: