There seems to be quite a lot of confusion around the ability to backup Exchange 2010 using the built in Windows Backup feature. This stems from the omission of this feature prior to Exchange 2007 service Pack 2
Exchange 2010 includes a plug-in for Windows Server Backup that allows you to perform a backup of the Exchange data using the Volume Shadow Copy Service.
With Windows 2008 R2 and Windows 2008 the Windows Backup feature is not installed by default so we first need to add this feature. To do this launch Server Manager, under Features select Add Feature. Locate the Windows Server Backup Features and put a check box in both options.
Now that the features are installed the plugin needs to be enabled. In the services snapin (start > Run > Services.msc) locate the “Microsoft Exchange Server Extension for Windows Server Backup” set the service to automatic and start it.
Backup the store
From Start > All Programs > Accessories > System Tools select Windows Server Backup
In the task pane select Backup Schedule. When the wizard opens click Next on the first screen and then select either Full Backup if you want to perform a full system backup or Custom if you just want to select the items to be backed up. So if you just want to backup the information store then select Custom. Click Next.
On the following screen click Add Items and browse to the folder your information store files are stored in. By default with Exchange 2010 this is C:\Program Files\Microsoft\Exchange Server\V14\Mailbox there will then be a folder for each store called Mailbox Database (Database reference number)
Once you have selected the Mailbox Databases and have returned to the wizard screen click the Advanced Settings button and under VSS Settings select VSS Full Backup
Configure your schedule and set the destination on the following two screens and select Finish. This will backup your Exchange databases and flush the logs.