Browse All Articles > VBA: curious usage of recursion

Some time ago I was asked to create a VBA function that would calculate a *check digit* for an input number, using the following procedure:

**chk = chk(chk)**

...having "understood" that the first and the third uses of "chk" relate to the implicit local variable (the return value for the function) and the second "chk" is a call to the function. I also appreciated that the function argument was being converted to proper type without any additional programming efforts.

## Using in VBScript

Then I studied whether type declarations of variables could be avoided so that the function could be used in VBScript where all variables have Variant type.

If a function type is not declared (i.e. if it is declared as Variant by default) it leads to endless recursion because the right side of the operator...

**chk = chk + Mid(x, i, 1)**

...is treated as string concatenation and, after Next, chk is a string equal to x. This can be avoided by explicit conversion of a digit:

**ByVal** keyword is omitted:

Finally, the check-digit producing function for VBScript looks like this:

First, sum up all the individual digits in the number

If that sum value has more than one digit, then sum up all digits in that sum...

...and so on.

It was clear that a recursive solution could be used and I wrote the following function:
```
Function chk(ByVal x As String) As Long
Dim i As Long
For i = 1 To Len(x)
chk = chk + Mid(x, i, 1)
Next
If chk > 9 Then chk = chk(chk)
End Function
```

I wondered that the compiler did not find an error in the expression...
If a function type is not declared (i.e. if it is declared as Variant by default) it leads to endless recursion because the right side of the operator...

`chk = chk + CLng(Mid(x, i, 1))`

or by implicit conversion in numeric operation:
```
chk = chk - Mid(x, i, 1)
Next
chk = -chk
```

If the `Function chk(x As String) As Long 'causes compiler error`

...then the compiler raises an error "ByRef argument type mismatch". But if the argument type is also omitted then there is no error.
Finally, the check-digit producing function for VBScript looks like this:

```
Function chk(x)
Dim i
For i = 1 To Len(x)
chk = chk + CLng(Mid(x, i, 1))
Next
If chk > 9 Then chk = chk(chk)
End Function
```

Another purpose of this article is to show once again that a function name can be used as a normal variable within the function code; i.e., there is no need to declare an auxiliary variable as some programmers do:
```
Function chk(x)
Dim i, aux 'aux is actually redundant'
For i = 1 To Len(x)
aux = aux + CLng(Mid(x, i, 1))
Next
chk = aux
If chk > 9 Then chk = chk(chk)
End Function
```

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