Basic DNS Record Types

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Common Types Of DNS Records
With a basic knowledge of DNS, you know that different types of records are required to identify hosts and different types of services and attributes related to the domain. The most common types of DNS records used in most domains and their most common uses are described below.

A - Host - Usually used to associate a hosts name with an IPv4 address. For IPv6 see AAAA record later in this article.
MX - Mail Exchange - Used to identify mail servers that perform mail services for the domain.  
NS - Name Server - Identifies an authoritative DNS server for a particular zone.
PTR - Maps IP addresses to hosts for use in a reverse DNS lookup.
SRV - Service Locator - A general service record. Used generically instead of creating protocol specific records such as MX.

More Record Types
AAAA - IPv6 Host - Same as an A Record except it returns an IPv6 address.
CNAME - Canonical Name - Used to create an alias to reference one host by multiple names.
DNAME - Delegation Name - delegates an entire portion of a DNS tree under a new name not to be confused with CNAME which is for an individual name.
LOC - Location - Specifies a geographical location of a domain
SOA - Start of Authority - Contains authoritative information about a domain including: serial number which other servers for the zone can use to identify changes; primary name server; refresh to identify the interval to check for serial number changes; email of domain administrator; and other information.
SPF - Stores information relating to the SPF Protocol. SPF data can be stored in the type of record or in a TXT record.
TXT - Used to store various values such as SPF information.

There are more types of DNS records and their uses may be more than what has been explained here but those listed are well known and their most common uses.
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