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UNIXer,

What is the usage of "!" ??????

Andrew
andrewyuAsked:
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ozoCommented:
In what context?
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rams021898Commented:
a) In the sed utility, the "!" is used to match all lines not cvoered in the address.

b) In the awk utility, the "!" is the negation operator.

c) When you type "history", you will get your history list of commands.  Typing "!" and a number will execute that specific command.

or even

d)In ftp, the "!" command tells ftp that you want to run a shell comman on your local host (like "!ls").

I think that's most, if not all of its uses.

Hope this helped....
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ahoffmannCommented:
In a couple of apps (rams still mentioned ftp) it is the shell escape (ex, ed, vi, etc.).
rams, in c) you asume csh, tcsh or something similar ;-)

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braveheartCommented:
! is also often a history operator in debuggers and similar applications. In the csh, it is also a negation operator. I'll bet that we haven't exhausted all the possibilities yet.
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