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Header Files

Posted on 1998-08-21
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Last Modified: 2010-04-15
I am experienced in C and C++ but I am not veery experienced in making Header files and accesing them from a program,
so I was hoping that someone could give me an example on how I could do something like that!

Thanks

Anton
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Question by:smoothasice
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9 Comments
 
LVL 4

Expert Comment

by:sganta
ID: 1252254
Hello !

This is not very difficult.

For eg:

Take a COMPILER project.

It is very hard to understand, if you have in the SINGLE FILE.

Now what I will do is , I will divide into different files.

1. Definition file
    Declaring Global Variables,

   <Def.h>

    Here you declare all the definitions.

2. Lexical Analyzer

    LEX.C

    #include "def.h"   /* This is your definition file */

   -- do whatever you want.

   It will include the code of def.h

I hope this helps you
   
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Author Comment

by:smoothasice
ID: 1252255
what he said didn't really hellp me out much
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Accepted Solution

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nilos earned 100 total points
ID: 1252256
The basic idea behind header files is to reuse definitions or even many includes to other headers files.

Let's say that you have a program composed by two modules and booth modules uses the same struct definition.

a) Create a file, let's say BaseProg.H and insert:

1. All includes that the two modules uses.
2. The struct definition in there.

b) In the two modules, remove de common includes
c) Add a line #include "BaseProg.H"

d) Now, every time that you change the struct definition (I'm assuming that you uses some kind of makefile or, better, a kind of integraded environment, the two modules recompiles and Bingo!

If you need a working sample I can supply one.

Last thing

Notice that i wrote #include "BaseProg.h". You will see that the compiler includes uses something like #include <stdio.h>. The difference in the constructions above indicates that the first searches for the included file in the current directory. The other looks in the INCLUDE= directory, normaly the compiler include directory.


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LVL 11

Expert Comment

by:alexo
ID: 1252257
Anton, it is hard to understand what you need from the wording of the question.
Do you mean .H files usually accessed by the #include directive?
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LVL 1

Expert Comment

by:newexpert
ID: 1252258
How to create/manage header files:

Things that can go into header files:

1.  Reusable definitions like
other header files: #include <stdio.h>
constants: #define CONSTANT 8
function prototypes: void print(void);
macros: #define debugmacro(x) printf("Debugging ... %s", #x); x;
class definitions: class dummy { int i; public int access(); };
extern global variables: extern int globalint;

2.  Conditional compilation statements:
eg. different code for different compilers:
#ifdef __STDC__
/* Some defintions here. eg ANSI C function prototypes. */
#else
/* Some other definitions here. eg K&R function prototypes. */
#endif

eg. different target requirement:
#define DEBUGVERSION
/* ... */
#ifdef DEBUGVERSION
/* Include debug macros or functions here */
#else
/* Include no debug functions. */
#endif

3.  Customized error messages for your own project:
#ifndef MYCONSTANT
#error Should have declared MYCONSTANT by now!!
#endif

4.  Customized features for your compiler:
#pragma /* something your compiler can understand. */

Note: Sometimes header files may not be included more than once.  This is achieved by using include guard:

#ifndef __THISHEADERFILE

#define __THISHEADERFILE

/* all header material goes here. */

#else

/* put nothing here. */

#endif

Now if you include the header twice, then the 1st #include includes content of file but 2nd #include includes nothing.
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Expert Comment

by:nilos
ID: 1252259
NewExpert made a point. Like we said here in Brazil "he kiled the snake and showed the stick".

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Expert Comment

by:alexo
ID: 1252260
Seems like the wrong point to me.  NewExpert gave a summary of preprocessor features.  However, most of them can be used just as well in source files.
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Expert Comment

by:Answers2000
ID: 1252261
Well I would have said headers are defined by wanting to share common stuff - but also but by what they shouldn't include:

Example: Don't declare storage, do declare definitions */

e.g.
int x ; /* Don't put this is a .h */
extern int x ; /* Do put this in a .h */
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Expert Comment

by:nilos
ID: 1252262
Elaborating Answer2000 one way to do this is:

1. Put this in every header file:

#ifdef      MAIN
#define      EE
#else
#define      EE      extern
#endif

2. To define a variable use:

EE int somevar;

3. In the module that contain main/winmain, before all includes, do:

#define MAIN

4. Restrictions. The variables defined as above cannot be initialized in the header.


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