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"Cannot Lock Volume for Direct Access"

Posted on 1998-09-01
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I am recieving this error message again at boot up!!!  One day recently is just appeared. Or actually I think it probably showed because I ran a "Checkdisk at next boot"

  I had this problem before and a long list of possible fixes, none worked (except the reformating of the hard drive)  

This is
Windows NT4.0 sp3
Segate 4gb scsi (the drive is not compressed)
Adaptec controller card

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Question by:davcos
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This document provides information about the following products and services available for computer users with disabilities:
·      MS Support Services for People Who Are Deaf or Hard-of-Hearing
·      MS Documentation in Alternative Formats
·      Help for Installing Windows NT 4.0
·      Accessibility Options in Windows NT 4.0
·      Keyboard and Mouse Input Features for Windows NT 4.0
·      Features for People with Visual Impairments
·      Features for People Who Are Deaf or Hard-of-Hearing
·      Features for People with Seizure Disorders
·      Other Ease-of-Use Features in Windows NT 4.0
·      Third-Party Utilities to Enhance Accessibility
·      Getting More Information for People with Disabilities
 
 
Note   The information in this Application Note applies to MS® Windows® NT users in the United States only. If you are outside the United States, your Windows NT 4.0 package contains a subsidiary information card listing product support telephone numbers and addresses. Contact your subsidiary to find out whether the types of products and services described in this Application Note are available in your area.
 
MS Support Services for People Who Are Deaf or Hard-of-Hearing
Through a text telephone (TT/TDD) service, MS provides people who are deaf or hard-of-hearing with complete access to MS product and customer services.
You can contact the MS Sales Information Center on a text telephone by dialing (800) 892-5234 between 6:30 A.M. and 5:30 P.M. Pacific time. For technical assistance in the United States, you can contact the MS Support Network on a text telephone at (206) 635-4948 between 6:00 A.M. and 6:00 P.M. Pacific time, Monday through Friday, excluding holidays. In Canada, dial (905) 568-9641 between 8:00 A.M. and 8:00 P.M. Eastern time, Monday through Friday, excluding holidays. MS support services are subject to MS prices, terms, and conditions in place at the time the service is used.
MS Documentation in Alternative Formats
People who have difficulty reading or handling printed documentation can obtain many MS publications from Recording for the Blind, Inc. Recording for the Blind distributes these documents to registered, eligible members of their distribution service, either on audio cassettes or on floppy disks. The Recording for the Blind collection contains more than 80,000 titles, including MS product documentation and books from MS Press. You can contact Recording for the Blind at the following address or phone and fax numbers for information on eligibility and availability of MS product documentation and books from MS Press:

Recording for the Blind20 Roszel RoadPrinceton, NJ 08540      Phone:Fax:      (609) 452-0606(609) 987-8116
The Windows NT 4.0 product documentation is available from Recording for the Blind. Many of the Windows NT 4.0 documents are also available on a CD-ROM that comes with the package.
Help for Installing Windows NT 4.0
 
Note   the procedure described below is for advanced users only.
 
This section contains instructions for setting up Windows NT for individuals who use third-party accessibility aids such as screen readers, screen magnifiers, and voice-control programs. The standard end-user installation process is Wizard-based, where the user is asked a series of questions through a Windows-based setup program. This type of installation does not work for individuals who require accessibility aids because the accessibility aids cannot function until after the operating system is fully installed. Users who require accessibility aids should use the Unattended Setup option.
In unattended setup, the Setup program is run using the WINNT or WINNT32 commands with the /u option. The /u option is used to specify an answer file (UNATTEND.TXT). This file provides the answers to the prompts that the end user would otherwise need to respond to during Setup. There are two methods for creating an unattended answer file: 1) save the file ACCSETUP.TXT, which can be found on the Windows NT 4.0 CR-ROM, as C:\UNATTEND.TXT and edit it directly, or 2) use the Windows NT Setup Manager (SETUPMGR.EXE), a 32-bit Windows program included with the Windows NT Workstation Resource Kit, to create a new UNATTEND.TXT. The Windows NT Setup Manager will run on Windows 95 or any version of Windows NT, but will not run on Windows 3.1, Windows for Workgroups, or any version of DOS. The Windows NT Setup Manager also comes with a text overview file (SETUPMGR.TXT) and a standard Windows Help file (SETUPMGR.HLP). In either case you should save the UNATTEND.TXT file at the root directory on your hard drive (that is, save as C:\UNATTEND.TXT).
It is also possible to install an accessibility utility automatically after installing Windows NT by using the /e switch. The /e switch executes a specified command after installation of Windows NT is completed. You can use this switch to tell WINNT (the setup program used for installing Windows NT from DOS, Windows 3.1, or Windows for Workgroups) or WINNT32 (the setup program used for installing Windows NT from Windows 95 or a previous version of Windows NT) to execute the setup program for your accessibility utility immediately after installation of Windows NT is completed. The following section lists detailed instructions for installing Windows NT and an accessibility utility at the same time.
To install Windows NT 4.0 from DOS, Windows 3.1 or Windows for Workgroups:
 1.      Create an UNATTEND.TXT file by saving the file ACCSETUP.TXT as C:\UNATTEND.TXT.
 2.      Edit the UNATTEND.TXT file using the instructions below.
 3.      Copy all of the installation files for your Windows NT 4.0–based accessibility utility to a new folder on your hard drive (for example, C:\ACCUTIL). It is necessary to copy the accessibility program files to the hard disk because you cannot leave a floppy disk in the floppy disk drive while Windows NT is being installed.
 4.      Then, from a command prompt, type
      D:\WINNT /u:C:\UNATTEND.TXT /s:D:\ /e:C:\ACCUTIL\SETUP.EXE
where
D: is the volume label of the distribution disk (for example, a CD-ROM drive or network server)
/e: points to the location of the setup program for the accessibility utility program.
/s: points to the location of the Windows NT installation files.
 
To install Windows NT 4.0 from Windows 95, or any earlier version of Windows NT:
 1.      Create an UNATTEND.TXT file by saving the file ACCSETUP.TXT as C:\UNATTEND.TXT.
 2.      Edit the UNATTEND.TXT file using the instructions below or use the Windows NT Setup Manager (SETUPMGR.EXE) on the Windows NT installation disks. The Windows NT Setup Manager also comes with a text file tutorial (SETUPMGR.TXT).
 3.      Copy all of the installation files for your Windows NT 4.0–based accessibility utility to a new folder on your hard drive (for example, C:\ACCUTIL). It is necessary to copy the accessibility program files to the hard disk because you cannot leave a floppy disk in the floppy disk drive while Windows NT is being installed.
 4.      Then, from a command prompt, type
      D:\WINNT /u:C:\UNATTEND.TXT /s:D:\ /e:C:\ACCUTIL\SETUP.EXE
where
D: is the volume label of the Windows NT distribution disk (for example, a CD-ROM drive or network server).
/e: points to the location of the setup program for the accessibility utility program.
/s: points to the location of the Windows NT installation files.
 
Accessibility Options in Windows NT 4.0
The Accessibility Options provided with Windows NT 4.0 make it easier to control the keyboard and mouse when using Windows NT 4.0. These features are designed primarily for individuals with motion-related disabilities who may have difficulty using the computer keyboard or mouse, and for individuals who prefer visual feedback in place of sounds. However, many of these features can be useful to everyone.
The Windows NT 4.0 Accessibility Options provides the following features.
 
Option      Description

StickyKeys      Enables single-finger typing.
FilterKeys      This includes the following features:* SlowKeys ignores keys that are pressed accidentally or for a short time.* BounceKeys ignores keys that are pressed more than once too quickly.* RepeatKeys adjusts or disables the keyboard repeat rate.
MouseKeys      Enables you to control the mouse cursor by using the keyboard.
ToggleKeys      Provides audio cues when CAPS LOCK, NUM LOCK, or SCROLL LOCK keys are turned on or off.
SerialKeys      Enables you to control the computer by using an alternate input device.
ShowSounds      Instructs Windows and programs to display visual equivalents of any information they would normally convey by sound alone.
SoundSentry      Tells Windows to send a visual cue, such as a blinking title bar or a screen flash, whenever sounds are generated.
To view and manage these features
 1.      On the Start menu, select Settings, and then choose Control Panel.
 2.      Choose the Accessibility Options icon.
 
Choosing this icon displays the Accessibility Properties dialog box, which contains tabs for configuring settings for each type of accessibility feature.
The following sections provide information on customizing settings and using keyboard and mouse input for the Accessibility features.
These features can be used separately or in combination. They are all designed so that an individual who requires a feature can turn it on without assistance. When all features are disabled, individuals who do not need them should not notice that the Accessibility features are installed, so the computer can be used both by people who require assistance and those who do not.
The Accessibility Options are installed by default in Windows NT 4.0, and it is recommended that these features be installed on all computers that are shared, such as public or workgroup computers.
Installing Accessibility Features
The Accessibility features are installed by default in Windows NT 4.0. However, in some cases a computer might be set up without these components. If the Accessibility Options are not installed on your computer, you can install them using Control Panel.
To install the Accessibility options:
 1.      On the Start menu, select Settings, and then choose Control Panel.
 2.      Choose the Add/Remove Programs icon.
 3.      On the Windows NT Setup tab, select the check box for Accessibility Options to mark it for installation.
 4.      Choose OK, and then follow the instructions on your screen.
 
Online Help on Accessibility
The Accessibility section in the Windows NT 4.0 Help—which appears in both the Contents and the Index—provides a quick reference and pointer to topics that can help you adjust the system for people with disabilities.
To read Help on Accessibility topics, go to the Start menu, choose Help , and then look up “Accessibility” in the Help Index.
Also, you can select the Contents tab to browse through Help topics that make learning and using Windows NT 4.0 easier. Some topics of particular interest under “How To” are:
·      Change Windows NT Settings
·      Set Up Windows Accessibility Features
·      Use Help
 
Some topics of particular interest under “Tips and Tricks” are:
·      For Setting Up the Desktop Efficiently
·      For Working with Files and Folders
 
Customizing and Using Accessibility Features: Accessibility Options Properties
The Accessibility Options icon in Control Panel provides properties that enable you to control most of the accessibility features in Windows NT 4.0. The properties you can set include turning the accessibility features on or off, in addition to customizing keyboard, sound, and mouse operation for your particular needs.
All of the features described in the following sections work with both Windows-based and MS-DOS®-based programs running on Windows NT 4.0. The behavior and hot-key activation sequences are designed to be compatible with earlier versions of Windows and with other operating systems that support these same features.
Activation of Hot Keys and Confirmation
The emergency activation hot keys provide an alternate method of turning on accessibility features for people who cannot use the computer without first having the accessibility features available. Also known as shortcut keys, these emergency hot keys enable you to temporarily turn on the specific feature required. Then, after a feature has been turned on, you can use the Accessibility Options or other items in Control Panel to adjust the feature you need to your own preferences, or to turn the feature on permanently. The same hot key temporarily turns off the feature if another person wants to use the computer without this feature.
Hot keys are designed to be unique key combinations that should not conflict with keys used by programs. If such a conflict does arise, the hot keys can be disabled, and you can still use the feature as needed.
As a precaution against accidental use, pressing an emergency hot key causes special tones to sound (a rising siren tone for on, and a falling siren tone for off) which confirm that it was activated or deactivated.
In a typical installation of Windows NT 4.0, the accessibility hotkeys are turned off to prevent them from conflicting with other programs. To turn on the hotkey for a feature, go to the appropriate tab in the Accessibility Options in Control Panel; then choose the Settings button for the feature, select the Use shortcut option, then choose OK twice to close the dialog boxes.
The following table lists these hot keys.
 
To turn on this option      Press the following keys

StickyKeys      SHIFT five times
MouseKeys      Left ALT + left SHIFT + NUM LOCK
FilterKeys, with default settings       Hold down right SHIFT for eight seconds
FilterKeys, with SlowKeys and RepeatKeys set to the most conservative values      Hold down right SHIFT for 12 seconds
FilterKeys, with BounceKeys and RepeatKeys set to the most conservative values      Hold down right SHIFT for 16 seconds
ToggleKeys      Hold down NUM LOCK for five seconds
Accessibility Timeout (Reset)
In the Accessibility Options properties, the Automatic Reset option turns off accessibility functionality after the computer has been idle for a certain period of time. It returns the operating system to its default configuration. This feature is useful on shared computers.
To enable the Automatic Reset (timeout) feature:
 1.      In Control Panel, choose the Accessibility Options icon.
 2.      On the General tab, make sure the Automatic Reset checkbox is selected.
 3.      Select a time in the list for the number of minutes to wait before turning off Accessibility features.
 4.      Choose OK.
      Note  The Automatic Reset (timeout) feature does not turn off the SerialKeys feature.
 
Keyboard layout differences
On U.S. keyboards or when using "United States" as the country and keyboard layout settings, StickyKeys treats the modifier keys as identical pairs to allow greater flexibility. That is, StickyKeys treats the left and right SHIFT keys, the left and right control (CTRL), and the left and right alternate (ALT) keys the same. For example, if you enter LOCKED mode by tapping the left SHIFT key twice, you could perform the intended function and exit LOCKED mode by tapping the right SHIFT key once, because the two modifier keys are treated the same.
On non-U.S. keyboards or when not using "United States" as the country or keyboard layout settings, you might find that your particular international keyboard layout attempts to distinguish between the left and right modifier keys. In particular, the keyboard layout might need to distinguish between the left and right ALT keys. This is typically done by giving the right ALT key a new name. Instead of just "ALT", it is now called the "AltGr" key, which is an abbreviation for "alt-graphics". For international keyboard layouts, StickyKeys still allows you to move freely between the left and right SHIFT or CTRL keys, but the left alternate key acts as the standard "ALT" key (typically used to access a menu item), while the right alternate key acts as the "AltGr" key (usually to access special characters in that particular language). Both the "ALT" and the "AltGr" keys can still be used in either LATCHED or LOCKED mode.
StickyKeys for One-Finger or Mouthstick Typing
Many software programs require you to press two or three keys at a time. For people who type using a single finger or a mouthstick, that isn’t possible. StickyKeys allows you to press one key at a time and instructs Windows to respond as if the keys had been pressed simultaneously.
When StickyKeys is on, pressing any modifier key (CTRL, ALT, or SHIFT) “latches” that key down until you release the mouse button or press a key that is not a modifier key. Pressing a modifier key twice in a row locks the key down until it is tapped a third time.
To adjust StickyKeys functionality:
 1.      In Control Panel, choose the Accessibility Options icon.
 2.      On the Keyboard tab, make sure the Use StickyKeys checkbox is selected.
 3.      To configure StickyKeys, choose the related Settings button.
 4.      In the settings for StickyKeys, select the options you want.
 5.      Choose OK.
 
To turn StickyKeys on or off by using an emergency hot key, press the SHIFT key five times.
If you have the sound features of StickyKeys enabled, you will hear a rising siren tone when StickyKeys is turned on or off using the hot key.
StickyKeys operates in two modes: Latched mode and Locked mode:
·      Tapping once on a modifier key puts it into Latched mode. If the StickyKeys sound features are enabled, you will hear a short low-beep/high-beep. When the next non-modifier key is pressed, the modifier key(s) are released.
·      Tapping twice in succession on a modifier key puts it into Locked mode. If the StickyKeys sound features are enabled, you will hear a short low-beep/high-beep after the first tap and a single high beep after the second tap. Once a modifier key is locked, it stays locked until it is pressed a third time.
 
Any and all of the modifier keys (SHIFT, CTRL, and ALT) can be latched or locked in combination.
For shared computers, there is an optional feature to keep non-disabled people from being confused when StickyKeys is left on. Whenever other people use the keyboard, they will hold the modifier key down and strike another key simultaneously. If the option named Turn StickyKeys Off When Pressing Two Keys At Once is enabled, StickyKeys detects that two keys are held down simultaneously and automatically turns the StickyKeys feature off.
Some people do not like to have keyboard sounds, while others find them useful. You can turn feedback sounds on or off in the StickyKeys properties by using the option Make Sounds When Modifier Key Is Pressed.
Also, it is possible to disable the Locked mode of StickyKeys by making sure the Press Modifier Key Twice To Lock checkbox is not selected.
FilterKeys for Controlling Keyboard Input (SlowKeys, BounceKeys, and RepeatKeys)
Windows NT 4.0 includes features designed to work either separately or in combination to address problems related to keyboard sensitivity. These features are grouped as FilterKeys and are known separately as SlowKeys, BounceKeys, and RepeatKeys. These options include the following:
·      SlowKeys instructs the computer to disregard keystrokes that are not held down for a minimum period of time. This allows you to brush against keys without any effect. When you place a finger on the proper key, you can hold the key down until the character appears on the screen.
·      RepeatKeys enables you to adjust the repeat rate or disable the key-repeat function on your keyboard. Most keyboards allow you to repeat a key just by holding it down. Although this automatic repeat feature can be convenient for some people, it poses a problem for individuals who can’t lift their fingers off the keyboard quickly.
·      BounceKeys instructs the computer to ignore keystrokes that are repeated quickly. This is useful for people with tremors whose fingers tend to bounce on the keys when pressing or releasing them.
 
You can adjust FilterKeys settings by using the Accessibility Options icon in Control Panel, or turn on or off a specific FilterKeys feature by using an emergency hot key.
To activate FilterKeys with your default settings, hold down the right SHIFT key for at least eight seconds.
The following sequence of events happens:
·      After 4 seconds, three short warning beeps sound. This enables you to stop the process if you were turning on FilterKeys accidentally.
·      After 4 more seconds, a single rising siren indicates that FilterKeys is turned on, using the previously chosen or default settings.
·      After 4 more seconds, you will hear two rising siren sounds, which is the first level of emergency settings—no key repeats, no acceptance delay, and ignoring repeated keystrokes.
·      After 4 more seconds (total of about 16 seconds), you will hear three rising sirens, which is the second level of emergency settings—no key repeats, with an acceptance delay of two seconds.
 
When you disable FilterKeys (using the same keyboard action), you will hear a falling siren.
You can adjust the FilterKeys settings so that unwanted functions have no effect.
To adjust FilterKeys settings:
 1.      In Control Panel, choose the Accessibility Options icon.
 2.      On the Keyboard tab, choose the Settings button related to FilterKeys.
 3.      Complete the settings as described below.
 
The Filter options are mutually exclusive (select one or the other):
·      Select Ignore Repeated Keystrokes, and then choose the related Settings button. Drag the slider bar to show how much time must elapse after you press a key before subsequent presses of the same key are accepted. (This feature is called BounceKeys.)
·      Select Ignore Quick KeyStrokes, and then choose the related Settings button. You can then configure settings for RepeatKeys and SlowKeys.
 
For RepeatKeys, which overrides the settings made using the Keyboard properties in Control Panel:
·      First choose whether you want to slow down the repeat rate on the keyboard or disable the repeat altogether.
·      If you choose to slow down the repeat rate, drag a slider bar to set the length of time you must hold a key down before it begins to repeat. If you have trouble releasing a key in time, set this to a long setting. Then drag the second slider bar to indicate how long to wait between repeated keystrokes for the key that is held down.
 
For SlowKeys, you must define the acceptance delay, which enables you to adjust the amount of time that you must hold a key down before it is accepted by the computer.
Another very useful FilterKeys feature is the option Beep When A Key Is Pressed. If this option is on and any FilterKeys functions are active, you hear a beep when you press the key or when the key repeats. For example, if SlowKeys is active, you would hear a sound when the key is pressed and also when the computer accepts the key. This can be useful when the keyboard is set to respond differently than usual.
ToggleKeys for Audio Cues on the Key's State
People with visual impairments may not be able to see the lights on the keyboard that indicate CAPS LOCK, NUM LOCK and SCROLL LOCK status. ToggleKeys provides audio cues — high and low beeps — to tell you whether these keys are active or inactive. If ToggleKeys is enabled, when you press one of these keys and it turns on, you will hear a high beep. When you press one of these keys and it turns off, you will hear a low beep.
To adjust ToggleKeys settings:
 1.      In Control Panel, choose the Accessibility Options icon.
 2.      On the Keyboard tab, select the Use ToggleKeys option.
 3.      To turn the hot key on or off, choose the related Settings button. Then select the Use Shortcut Key option. If this option is selected, the shortcut key is on.
 4.      Choose OK.
 
To turn ToggleKeys on or off by using an emergency hot key, hold down the NUM LOCK key for eight seconds.
When ToggleKeys turns on, you will hear a rising siren if sound is turned on.
ToggleKeys is especially useful for people who accidentally press the CAPS LOCK key instead of the TAB key, because it provides immediate feedback when they make such a mistake. ToggleKeys also functions with keyboards that do not have the status indicator lights for the CAPS LOCK, NUM LOCK, and SCROLL LOCK keys. The audible low and high beeps can be very useful for all users with this style of keyboard.
MouseKeys for Keyboard-Only Input
This feature lets you control the mouse pointer by using the keyboard. Although Windows NT 4.0 is designed to allow you to perform all actions without a mouse, some programs might still require one, and a mouse might be more convenient for some tasks. MouseKeys is also useful for graphic artists and others who need to position the pointer with great accuracy. You do not need to have a mouse to use this feature.
To adjust MouseKeys functionality:
 1.      In Control Panel, choose the Accessibility Options icon.
 2.      On the Mouse tab, make sure the Use MouseKeys checkbox is selected.
 3.      To configure MouseKeys, choose the Settings button.
 4.      In the settings for MouseKeys, select the options you want.
 5.      Choose OK.
 
To turn on MouseKeys from the keyboard, press Left ALT + left SHIFT+ NUM LOCK.
When MouseKeys turns on, you will hear a rising siren if sounds are turned on.
If you are using only one finger, a mouthstick, or a headpointer to operate the computer, the easiest way to activate MouseKeys is to first activate StickyKeys by tapping either SHIFT key five times. You can then press the three keys in sequence rather than simultaneously.
 
Note   If SlowKeys is active, all the MouseKeys control keys respond according to the acceptance delay set for SlowKeys.
 
When MouseKeys is on, use the following keys to move the pointer on the screen:
·      On the numeric keypad, press any of the numbered keys immediately surrounding the 5 key (also called the arrow keys) to move the pointer in the direction indicated by their arrows.
·      Use the 5 key for a single mouse-button click and the PLUS SIGN (+) key for a double-click.
·      To drag and release an object, place the pointer on the object and then press the INS KEY to begin dragging. Move the object to its new location, and then press DEL to release it.
·      To select the left, right, or both mouse buttons for clicking, press the SLASH (/) key, the MINUS SIGN (-) key, or the ASTERISK (*) key, respectively.
 
You can use the NUM LOCK key to toggle the MouseKeys control pad back to the numeric keypad and vice versa. This is especially useful with a laptop or notebook computer that doesn't have a separate numeric keypad. On these computer keyboards, the numeric keypad is usually overlaid on top of the standard QWERTY keyboard.
 
Note   If the MouseKeys feature is on but NUM LOCK is toggled to the opposite setting, the MouseKeys icon in the taskbar shows that MouseKeys is disabled.
 
For example, if you were using the numeric keypad for number entry before starting MouseKeys, when you toggle out of MouseKeys by using the NUM LOCK key, you can enter numbers with the numeric keypad. If you were using the numeric keypad as a cursor keypad before starting MouseKeys, when you toggle out of MouseKeys by using the NUM LOCK key, you will have a cursor keypad.
It can be useful to combine use of MouseKeys and a physical mouse. For example, you can use the standard mouse to move quickly around the screen, and then use MouseKeys to move more precisely (unit by unit) to your final destination. Some people cannot use the standard mouse while simultaneously holding down the mouse button, so you can use MouseKeys to lock down the currently active mouse button, then move the mouse cursor by using MouseKeys or the real mouse, and then release the mouse button by using MouseKeys.
SoundSentry and ShowSounds for Visual Feedback
SoundSentry and ShowSounds can only be enabled from the ShowSounds tab within the Accessibility Options in Control Panel.
ShowSounds is a global flag that instructs programs to provide visible feedback—in effect, asking the programs to be “closed-captioned.”
SoundSentry tells Windows to send a visual cue, such as a blinking title bar or a screen flash, whenever the computer generates a sound. This enables you to see when the computer is generating sounds, although it cannot enable you to distinguish between different sounds.
·      Use the Warning For Windowed Programs option to choose a visual cue when the active window is a Windows-based or MS-DOS-based program running in a window. You can choose to flash the Windows desktop (the entire display), flash the active window, or flash only the active window's title bar. You can also choose to have no visual cue in this situation.
      Note  if you choose to flash the active window's title bar, you may not see any visual cue if the active window has no title bar.
      Note  some displays do not have a border that can be flashed, so you will see no visual cue if you choose this option on incompatible display hardware. This is true of some liquid crystal displays (LCDs) typically found on laptop computers.
 
In Windows NT 4.0, the SoundSentry feature only supports sounds generated through the computer's internal speaker. It cannot detect sounds made using multimedia sound cards or MIDI systems. If your computer has a multimedia sound card, you may need to disable this hardware to force sounds to be played through the computer's built-in speaker. This allows SoundSentry to detect these sound events. You can disable your multimedia sound card by using the Multimedia icon in Control Panel.
To disable your multimedia sound card:
 1.      In Control Panel, choose the Multimedia icon.
 2.      On the Advanced tab, select Audio Devices in the Multimedia devices list. You can show the available audio devices by pressing the RIGHT ARROW key or clicking the plus sign (+) icon.
 3.      Select the audio device that you want to disable, and then choose Properties.
 4.      Select Do Not Use Audio Features Of This Device.
 5.      Choose OK.
 6.      Choose OK or Apply.
 
You need to restart Windows for this change to take effect. To re-enable your multimedia sound card, repeat the same procedure but select the option Use Audio Features Of This Device in the Properties dialog box.
High-Contrast Mode for People with Low Vision
Many people with low vision require a high degree of contrast between foreground and background objects, in order to distinguish the objects. For example, some people may not be able to easily read black text on a gray background, or text drawn over a picture. By selecting a High Contrast display scheme, you can now instruct Windows NT 4.0 and programs to display information with a high degree of contrast.
To select a high-contrast display scheme:
 1.      In Control Panel, choose the Display icon.
 2.      On the Appearance tab, select one of the High Contrast schemes from the list.
 3.      Choose OK or Apply.
 
Windows NT 4.0 color schemes enable you to choose from several well-designed sets of screen-color options, designed both to match users’ individual tastes and to meet their visual needs. The new color schemes in Windows NT 4.0 include high-contrast colors, such as white text on a black background, or black text on a white background. These high-contrast color schemes optimize the visibility of screen objects for people with visual impairments.
SerialKeys for Alternative Input Devices
This feature, in conjunction with a communications aid interface device, enables you to control the computer by using an alternative input device. Such a device needs only to send coded command strings through the computer’s serial port to specify keystrokes and mouse events, which are then treated as typical keyboard or mouse input. This feature is designed for people who are unable to use the computer's standard keyboard and mouse.
In some cases, these special input devices can be connected to a computer's serial port (the connector commonly used for attaching a modem or printer). However, this is in itself not enough to enable you to emulate or control keyboard and mouse functions, because the computer is designed to receive keyboard and mouse signals through its keyboard and mouse ports.
Using SerialKeys enables you to control keyboard and mouse functions through the serial port. This is done by sending the right series of letters and commands from the special input device to the computer's serial port. The regular keyboard and mouse can still be used while SerialKeys is being used.
 
Note   Typing at the standard keyboard while simultaneously entering commands using SerialKeys can cause SerialKeys to loose track of the status of various keys on the standard keyboard.
 
The most commonly used special input device for SerialKeys is a communication aid: an electronic device often used by people who can't communicate by speech alone because of a physical disability. Using SerialKeys requires you to program specific key definitions into the special input device. You will need the documentation for the device to carry out this programming.
This section describes how to set up SerialKeys with a device such as a communication aid (referred to as "the aid" in these instructions), including how to hook up the aid to the computer, how to set up SerialKeys on the computer, and what letters or commands to send so you can type any key on the keyboard and make any mouse movement you want from the aid. Follow these instructions step-by-step. If you are the user of the aid, someone may need to assist you the first time you set up SerialKeys.
 
Note   These instructions do NOT tell you how to program a particular aid. You must consult the documentation for the aid, or contact the manufacturer if you have questions.
 
Task 1: Determine whether the communication aid works with SerialKeys.
First, make sure the aid works with SerialKeys. You should be able to answer yes to all of the following questions:
·      Can you program selections on the aid to have unique words and sentences stored under them? Most electronic communication aids let you program any series of characters (letter, numbers, symbols) for a particular selection.
·      Can the aid store at least 84 programmable selections? You need at least one selection space for each key on the computer's keyboard, plus more if you want to use the mouse. There are 84 keys on the standard IBM AT keyboard, and now many keyboards have 101 keys. You don't need to be able to store all of the keys and mouse actions on the same level (or overlay) on the aid. You might, for instance, want to use one level for the keyboard and one for the mouse.
·      Does the aid have a serial port? This is the connection used to attach a printer to your computer. It is sometimes called an RS-232 serial port.
·      Can you program selections on the aid so that when they are selected, they are automatically sent to the serial port? Many aids have this capability, because it can be useful for printing messages. If you have a printer connected to the serial port, typing h-e-l-l-o on the aid and sending it out the serial port makes "hello" print on the printer. If you have the aid's serial port connected to the computer's serial port, and you have SerialKeys working, typing h-e-l-l-o on the aid and sending it out the aid's serial port causes the word "hello" to appear on the computer screen—just as if it had been typed on the computer's keyboard.
·      Does your computer have a serial port? This is sometimes called a COM port. If the computer doesn’t have a serial port, you can probably add one. If you have a serial port but you are using it for something else, such as connecting a printer or a modem, you will have to either disconnect the printer or modem or add another serial port.
·      Can the aid send information through its serial port at the rate of 300 baud? (The term 300 baud refers to the speed at which characters are transmitted.) SerialKeys can "talk to" an aid that's sending information at 300, 600, 1200, 2400, 4800, 9600, or 19200 baud.
 
Task 2: Connect the aid to the computer.
Plug one end of the serial cable into the serial port on the aid and the other end into the serial port on the computer. If you don't already have a serial cable, obtain one from the manufacturer of the aid.
 
Note   The aid may require an adapter to match the connector on the computer. In addition, the aid may require a null-modem adapter (available at most computer stores) to transmit properly with the computer.
 
Task 3: Configure the aid for serial transmission.
To communicate, the aid and SerialKeys must be transmitting to each other at the same speed (baud rate). The recommended speed is 300 baud. You must also make sure the aid is configured with the following settings:
·      1 start bit
·      8 data bits
·      1 stop bit
·      No parity
 
You don't have to know what this means; you just have to make sure the aid is configured that way. In addition, most aids have a special selection or a switch for sending the characters stored in the aid out the serial port. Make sure you turn on this function. Other aids may require that you program special codes to set up the serial port. In all cases, check the documentation for the aid to determine how to configure it.
Task 4: Activate SerialKeys.
Make sure SerialKeys is active in Windows NT 4.0.
 
Note   The SerialKeys feature is a special service that must first be activated by a user who has administrative privileges. To enable SerialKeys for use by other users, the administrator must follow the instructions below and answer Yes when prompted to save changes as the default for new users and the logon prompt.
 
To activate SerialKeys:
 1.      In Control Panel, choose the Accessibility Options icon.
 2.      On the General tab, make sure the Support SerialKeys Devices checkbox is selected.
 3.      Choose the related Settings button.
 4.      Select the Serial Port (either COM port 1, 2, 3, or 4).
 5.      Select the Baud Rate (300 baud is recommended).
 6.      Choose OK.
 7.      If you have administrator privileges, you will be asked if you want to save changes as the default for new users and the logon prompt. Choose Yes.
 
 
Note   SerialKeys does not attempt to verify whether the computer hardware actually supports COM ports 1 through 4. Rather, it depends on Windows to configure and communicate with the hardware. Before attempting to connect the communication aid, you may want to review your computer documentation to be sure it supports your choice of COM port.
 
The following topics tell you how to program each different type of key or mouse movement. The examples are provided to help you set up the aid and computer properly, and to help you understand how to program the aid, before you program the complete set of keys and mouse movements. There are four types of SerialKeys actions you can program into any selection (position) on the aid:
·      Basic keys
·      Special keys
·      Modifier keys
·      Mouse movements
 
 
Note   Before you start typing keys, send three null characters from the aid to the computer. This resets SerialKeys. (The null character is different from a zero; usually it can be made on the aid by pressing CTRL+@.)
 
Typing Basic Keys by Using SerialKeys
Each key on your computer keyboard has a keyname, and it is this keyname that you must program into the aid to be able to type that key. Many of the keynames consist of a single character, which are referred to here as the "basic keys":
`1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 -
 q w e r t y u i o p [ ]
 a s d f g h j k l ; '
 z x c v b n m , . / \
To type one of these keys, you just send that single character out the serial port of the aid. For example, to type the word "hello,” you simply select the "h" keyname, the "e" keyname, the "l" keyname, another "l" keyname, and finally an "o" keyname. Most aids have all of these single-character keynames programmed into them, so there is no additional programming to do for these keys.
Typing Special Keys by Using SerialKeys
Many keys do not have single-character keynames. For example, the NUM LOCK and CAPS LOCK keys each have more than a single-character name. These are called special keys because you have to do something different to type them using the aid. To type special keys, you must program a sequence of characters into a single selection on the aid. The sequence for special keys is different for each key, but always follows two rules:
·      The sequence must begin with the Escape character.
·      The sequence must end with a period.
 
The Escape character usually can be generated on the aid by selecting the Control function along with the left bracket ( [ ). On some aids, this appears as ^[. Check the documentation for the aid if you're not sure how to make the Escape character on it. We will refer to the Escape character by putting "esc" between two angle brackets, like this: <esc>.
 
Note   In these instructions, when you see <esc> in a sequence of characters, it just means ONE character (the Escape character), not five characters, as it might appear.
 
To program the name of a special key into the aid:
 1.      Program the Escape character.
 2.      Program the correct name for the special key.
 3.      Program a period.
 
These should all be programmed as one word or selection on the aid. When you need the special keys, the entire string is sent out to the serial port of the computer by making only one selection on the aid. For example, to type the ENTER key, the character sequence would be:
 
<esc>enter.
 
SerialKeys has official names for each of the special keys on your keyboard. Because the sequences for special keys are somewhat long, you will want to program an entire sequence for a special key into a single selection on the aid. Then you can label this selection (such as Enter) and have it ready for when you need to type the key. In fact, you will probably want to program the sequences for all the special keys on the computer keyboard into selections on the aid. The time spent doing this will be made up many times once you begin using the aid to access the computer.
See “Programming the Aid for Keyboard and Mouse Functions” later in this section to learn how to set up the complete keyboard and for a table of all the keynames.
Typing Modifier Keys (shift, ctrl, alt) by Using SerialKeys
There are three special keys that must be typed differently from the other special keys: SHIFT, Control (CTRL), and Alternate (ALT). These three keys are called the modifier keys, since they don't do anything themselves but modify the action of another key. SHIFT, for instance, makes a small "a" into a capital "A." On an ordinary keyboard, you hold down the modifier key while pressing the other key. SerialKeys imitates this action by using a command called "hold."
Following is the sequence you have to type on the aid to type a modifier key:
 1.      The Escape character
 2.      Comma (,)
 3.      The word "hold"
 4.      Another comma (,)
 5.      The name for the modifier key (see “Programming the Aid for Keyboard and Mouse Functions” later in this section)
 6.      Period (.)
 7.      The key you want to modify
 
The following command string would be used to send a capital A on your computer by using SerialKeys.
 
<esc>,hold,shift.   Holds the SHIFT key down
 a                  while you send the "a" key)
 
Remember, <esc> means the Escape character on the aid. And don't forget the commas and the period. If you've typed the sequence successfully, a capital "A" should appear on your computer, just as if you had held down the SHIFT key on the regular keyboard and then pressed the "a" key.
Most keyboards have two SHIFT keys, a right SHIFT key and a left SHIFT key. You can use different keynames (lshift and rshift) for the two keys to distinguish between them if you like. Some keyboards also have right and left Control keys and right and left Alternate keys. SerialKeys also distinguishes between these. See “Programming the Aid for Keyboard and Mouse Functions” to learn how to set up the complete keyboard, and for a table of all the keynames.
Using SerialKeys to Move and Click the Mouse
If your computer is equipped to use a mouse, you can operate all the mouse functions from the aid as well, using SerialKeys. If you're not interested in performing mouse functions, skip to “Programming the Aid for Keyboard and Mouse Functions” later in this section.
Before you perform any mouse functions by using SerialKeys, you should send the moureset (mouse reset) command. This should be done whenever you start up a program (such as a word processing program) that uses the mouse. Just send this command from the aid:
 
<esc>,moureset.
 
The mouse pointer should move to the upper-left corner of the screen.
To Move the Mouse: You can do the equivalent of moving the mouse by sending a move command from the aid to the computer. Here are the parts of a move command, in the proper order:
 1.      The Escape character (see Task 4 if you don't know what this is)
 2.      Comma
 3.      The word "move"
 4.      Comma
 5.      Plus (+) or minus (-) sign followed by a number (for horizontal movement)
 6.      Comma
 7.      Plus or minus sign followed by a number (for vertical movement)
 8.      Period
 
The move command takes two numbers after it: first the motion in the horizontal direction and then the motion in the vertical direction. There must be either a plus (+) or a minus (-) sign before each number, unless the number is a zero. Positive numbers move the mouse pointer to the right or down. Negative numbers move the mouse pointer to the left or up. Examples:
 
<esc>,move,+10,-20.   Moves 10 units to right and 20 units up
<esc>,move,-10,+20.   Moves 10 units to left and 20 units down
 
To Click the Mouse: To click the button on a mouse, you use the click command. The commands should be typed as you see below. Remember, <esc> means a single "Escape" character. Examples:
 
<esc>,click,left.     Clicks the left button
<esc>,click,right.    Clicks the right button
 
To Double-click the Mouse: You can double-click the mouse by using the same commands as shown above, but with the command dblclick in place of the command click. Example:
 
<esc>,dblclick,left.
 
To Click and Drag with the Mouse: SerialKeys lets you do the equivalent of holding the mouse button down while moving the mouse (“dragging”) by using the moulock (mouse lock) and mourel (mouse release) commands, together with the move command. If, for example, you want to select text in a word- processing program that uses the mouse, you would:
·      Move the mouse to the beginning of the text you want to select by using the move command as described earlier.
·      Press the mouse button down and keep it down by using the moulock command:
      <esc>,moulock,left.
·      Move the mouse to the end of the text you want to select by using the move command as described earlier.
·      Release either button (or both) by using the mourel command:
      <esc>,mourel.
 
Programming the Aid for Keyboard and Mouse Functions
Before you program all of the keys and mouse actions into the aid, you probably want to decide how to lay out the selections on the aid. Look at the number of different keys you might want to have (see the following table). You will probably want mouse movements also. If the aid stores vocabulary in levels, decide whether you want keyboard and mouse actions on separate levels in the aid. If the aid uses combinations of symbols to store vocabulary, decide which combinations you want to use for keyboard and mouse functions.
The following table lists character sequences you send from the aid to simulate the individual keyboard keys. In some cases, there are several character sequences that all simulate the same key.
In this table, the term p/r indicates a key being pressed and immediately released. Toggled indicates that a key such as CAPS LOCK will be turned on if currently off, or turned off if currently on. Pressed down indicates that the key will be pressed and remain held down during the next key simulated.
 
Key name      Command Code      Send from aid      Action(s)

alt      alt      <esc>,hold,alt.      alternate (alt) key pressed down
backspace      backspacebksp      <esc>backspace.<esc>bksp.      backspace key p/r
caps lock      capslkcapslock      <esc>capslk. <esc>capslock.      caps lock key toggled
comma      comma      <esc>comma.      comma key p/r
ctrl      controlctrl      <esc>,hold,control.<esc>,hold,ctrl.      ctrl key pressed down
del      del      <esc>del.      numeric pad del key p/r, "." or "del"
delete      delete      <esc>delete.      delete key p/r
divide      divide      <esc>divide.      divide key p/r, "/"
down arrow      down      <esc>down.      down arrow key p/r
end      end      <esc>end.      end key p/r
enter      enter      <esc>enter.      enter or return key p/r
esc      escescape      <esc>esc.<esc>escape.      escape key p/r
f1      f1      <esc>f1.      function 1 key p/r
f2      f2      <esc>f2.      function 2 key p/r
f3       f3       <esc>f3.      function 3 key p/r
f4      f4      <esc>f4.      function 4 key p/r
f5      f5      <esc>f5.      function 5 key p/r
f6      f6      <esc>f6.      function 6 key p/r
f7      f7      <esc>f7.      function 7 key p/r
f8      f8      <esc>f8.      function 8 key p/r
f9      f9      <esc>f9.      function 9 key p/r
f10      f10      <esc>f10.      function 10 key p/r
f11      f11      <esc>f11.      function 11 key p/r
f12      f12      <esc>f12.      function 12 key p/r
home      home      <esc>home.      home key p/r
ins      ins      <esc>ins.      numeric pad ins key p/r, "0" or "ins"
insert      insert      <esc>insert.      insert key toggled
numeric pad star      kp* kpstarkptimes      <esc>kp*.<esc>kpstar.<esc>kptimes.      numeric pad star key p/r, "*"
numeric pad plus      kp+kpplus      <esc>kp+.<esc>kpplus.      numeric pad plus key p/r, "+"
numeric pad minus      kp-kpminus      <esc>kp-.<esc>kpminus.      numeric pad minus key p/r, "-"
numeric pad divide      kp/ kpdividekpslash      <esc>kp/.<esc>kpdivide.<esc>kpslash.      numeric pad divide key p/r, "/"
numeric pad 0      kp0kpinskpinsert      <esc>kp0.<esc>kpins.<esc>kpinsert.      numeric pad 0 key p/r, "0" or "ins"
numeric pad 1      kp1kpend      <esc>kp1.<esc>kpend.      numeric pad 1 key p/r, "1" or "end"
numeric pad 2      kp2kpdown      <esc>kp2.<esc>kpdown.      numeric pad 2 key p/r, "2" or "down arrow"
numeric pad 3      kp3kppagedown kppgdn      <esc>kp3.<esc>kppagedown.<esc>kppgdn.      numeric pad 3 key p/r, "3" or "pgdn"
numeric pad 4      kp4kpleft       <esc>kp4.<esc>kpleft.      numeric pad 4 key p/r, "4" or "left arrow"
numeric pad 5      kpmidlkp5      <esc>kpmidl.<esc>kp5.      numeric pad 5 key p/r, "5"
numeric pad 6      kp6 kpright       <esc>kp6.<esc>kpright.      numeric pad 6 key p/r, "6" or "right arrow"
numeric pad 7      kp7kphome      <esc>kp7.<esc>kphome.      numeric pad 7 key p/r, "7" or "home
numeric pad 8      kp8kpup      <esc>kp8.<esc>kpup.      numeric pad 8 key p/r, "8" or "up arrow"
numeric pad 9      kp9kppageupkppgup      <esc>kp9.<esc>kppageup.<esc>kppgup.      numeric pad 9 key p/r, "9" or "pgup"
numeric pad .      kpdelkpdeletekpdp      <esc>kpdel. <esc>kpdelete. <esc>kpdp.      numeric pad . key p/r, "." or "delete"
numeric pad enter      kpenter      <esc>kpenter.      numeric pad enter key p/r
left alt key      lalt       <esc>,hold,lalt.       left alternate key pressed down
left ctrl key      lcontrollctrlleftcontrolleftctrl      <esc>,hold,lcontrol.<esc>,hold,lctrl. <esc>,hold,leftcontrol.<esc>,hold,leftctrl.      left control key pressed down
left arrow key      left      <esc>left.      left arrow key p/r
      leftalt       <esc>,hold,leftalt.      left alternate key pressed down
left shift key      leftshiftlshift      <esc>,hold,leftshift.<esc>,hold,lshift.      left shift key pressed down
* key      multiply      <esc>multiply.       star key p/r, "*"
num lock key      numlknum lock      <esc>numlk. <esc>numlock.      num lock key toggled
page down key      page downpgdn      <esc>pagedown.<esc>pgdn.      page down key p/r
page up key      page uppgup      <esc>pageup.<esc>pgup.      page up key p/r
period key      period      <esc>period.       period key p/r, "."
right alt key      ralt rightalt      <esc>,hold,ralt.<esc>,hold,rightalt.      right alternate key pressed down
right ctrl key      rcontrol rctrlrightcontrolrightctrl      <esc>,hold,rcontrol.<esc>,hold,rctrl.<esc>,hold,rightcontrol. <esc>,hold,rightctrl.      right control key pressed down
return or enter key      ret return      <esc>ret. <esc>return.      return or enter key p/r
right arrow key      right      <esc>right.      right arrow key p/r
right shift key      right shiftrshift      <esc>,hold,rightshift.<esc>,hold,rshift.      right shift key pressed down
scroll lock key      scroll scrolllock      <esc>scroll.<esc>scrolllock.      scroll lock key toggled
shift key      shift      <esc>,hold,shift.       shift key pressed down
spacebar key      space      <esc>space.       spacebar key p/r
tab key      tab      <esc>tab.       tab key p/r
tilde key      tilde      <esc>tilde.       tilde key p/r, "`"
up arrow key      up       <esc>up.       up arrow key p/r
Troubleshooting and Advanced Topics for SerialKeys
If you are using SerialKeys and the aid stops sending keys successfully, try the following:
·      Check to make sure you included any necessary periods in your keynames.
·      Send three null characters. (The null character is different from a zero; usually it can be made on the aid by typing CTRL+-@.
·      Reset both the aid and SerialKeys to 300 baud. (If there is a communication difficulty, SerialKeys may automatically reset itself to 300 baud, making it unable to communicate with the aid if the aid is sending at a different rate.)
 
Note the following:
·      SerialKeys uses hardware handshaking (DTR/RTS) and software (XON/OFF) handshaking to control the flow of characters from the aid. Characters may be lost if the aid ignores these handshaking signals.
·      Windows NT 4.0 manages the COM ports, including the hardware interrupt lines. Windows NT will not allow another device to use or share the interrupt line that SerialKeys is using. This means that if, for example, you have SerialKeys turned on using COM port 1, you cannot use the Windows Terminal program on COM port 1. Also, if you have SerialKeys on COM 1, and another program is experiencing problems while using COM 3, you will need to move the program or SerialKeys to COM 2 or COM 4. See your computer documentation for details on how COM 1 and 3 and COM 2 and 4 should be set, and whether the computer supports COM ports 3 and 4.
 
We recommend programming the aid to use the IBM Enhanced Keyboard (101 keys). Even if the computer does not have this keyboard, SerialKeys will function as the 101-key keyboard. This can be to your advantage, as some programs recognize the additional keys, enabling you to use additional features. If you choose to program the 83- or 84-key keyboard, there are a few exceptions you should be aware of:
·      To use the Break function, you would ordinarily press and hold down the CTRL key and press the SCROLL key. For SerialKeys, press and hold down the CTRL key and press the PAUSE key.
·      To use the Pause function, you would ordinarily press and hold down the CTRL key and press the NUM LOCK key. For SerialKeys, just press the PAUSE key.
 
Advanced Mouse Movements: It's a good idea to at least program some square or selection on the aid to move the mouse in the four directions by 1, by 10, and by 100 units. This allows you to make small, fine movements and large, fast movements. Examples:
 
<esc>,move,+1,0.         Moves mouse pointer 1 unit right
<esc>,move,-1,0.         Moves mouse pointer 1 unit left
<esc>,move,0,+1.         Moves mouse pointer 1 unit down
<esc>,move,0,-1.         Moves mouse pointer 1 unit up
<esc>,move,+10,0.        Moves mouse pointer 10 units right
<esc>,move,-10,0.        Moves mouse pointer 10 units left
<esc>,move,0,+10.        Moves mouse pointer 10 units down
<esc>,move,0,-10.        Moves mouse pointer 10 units up
<esc>,move,+100,0.       Moves mouse pointer 100 units right
<esc>,move,-100,0.       Moves mouse pointer 100 units left
<esc>,move,0,+100.       Moves mouse pointer 100 units down
<esc>,move,0,-100.       Moves mouse pointer 100 units up
 
Resetting SerialKeys: If you are using SerialKeys in a multi-user environment, the first command you send to SerialKeys should be the reset command. This ensures that SerialKeys will be at 300 baud and ready to accept your keyboard and mouse actions. The reset command consists of sending three null (ASCII 0) characters with the aid configured to 300 baud. A null character can usually be generated on the aid by pressing CTRL+ @.
Using Lock and Release: This command can be used to hold a key down and lift it back up again as separate actions. Its primary use is in using SerialKeys in combination with MouseKeys.
·      Turn on MouseKeys by pressing left ALT + left SHIFT + NUM LOCK.
·      Decide which direction you want to move the mouse. Find out what numeric keypad key moves the mouse in that direction in MouseKeys.
·      Send a lock command with that keyname. For example, to move the mouse pointer to the right:
      <esc>,lock,kpright.
      or
      <esc>,lock,kp6.
·      When the mouse pointer has moved as far as you want in that direction, send the release command:
      <esc>,rel.
 
You can program the lock part and the release part of this sequence under a different selection on the aid, so you don't have to type them out each time you use them. Make sure to include the commas and periods.
 
Note   MouseKeys also enables you to hold and release a mouse button or click a mouse button.
 
Using the Keyboard Combine Command: If you want to program a modifier key and another key under a single selection on the aid, use the combine command to put several keystrokes under one selection on the aid. This can be useful for common multiple-key command combinations required by software. There must be commas between the keys and a period at the end. No more than five keys can be combined. Example:
 
<esc>,combine,shift,ctrl,enter.
 
Using the Mouse Goto Command: This moves the mouse to a specified location. You should send the moureset command first. Both the horizontal and vertical direction numbers require only a plus (+) sign. (See the example for moving the mouse, earlier in this section.) Example:
 
<esc>,goto,+20,+25.
 
Using the Mouse Anchor Command: This command can be used to anchor the mouse pointer to a position within a Windows-based program. An example is shown below of using the mouanchor (mouse anchor) command to mark a current window position, go to a new location and click the mouse to select a new tool, go to another new location and click the mouse to select another color, and then return to the exact location you left to use that tool. If you change the active window between setting the mouse anchor and returning to that anchor, the mouse anchor command will not work. Example:
 
<esc>,mouanchor.    Sets the position or anchors the cursor
<esc>,goto,+10,+10. Goes to a new location
<esc>,click.        Click selects a new tool in this
                    program at location 10,10
<esc>,goto,+50,+10. Goes to a new location
<esc>,click.        Click selects a new color in this
                    program at location 50,10
<esc>,mouanchor.    Returns to where you left from,
                    anchor released
 
Using the Baudrate Command: This command enables you to change the baud rate of SerialKeys from the aid. The possible baud rates are 300, 600, 1200, 2400, 4800, and 9600. This command is never absolutely necessary, since you can also set the baud rate of SerialKeys. Example:
 
<esc>,baudrate,300.
 
If you decide to run SerialKeys at a baud rate faster than 300, you must be aware of the special automatic reset feature of SerialKeys. Whenever SerialKeys receives three consecutive characters with a transmission error, it automatically resets to 300 baud. This enables people in a multi-user environment to put SerialKeys in a known state (300 baud). SerialKeys signals any transmission problem with a short beep. If SerialKeys resets to 300 baud, it makes a long beep. SerialKeys also signals a baud rate change with a long beep.
Keyboard and Mouse Input Features for Windows NT 4.0
This section describes the features in Windows NT 4.0 for customizing keyboard and mouse behavior. These customization features are available on all computers running Windows NT 4.0.
Additional documentation is available that describes how to use Windows NT 4.0 with a keyboard instead of a mouse. For more information see the section, “Getting More Information for People with Disabilities” later in this document.
Adjusting Keyboard Properties for Easier Typing
The following sections summarize ways to adjust the keyboard to make typing easier. For additional keyboard features, see the section “Accessibility Options in Windows NT 4.0” earlier in this document.
Setting Keyboard Auto-Repeat Delay and Speed
The Keyboard icon in Control Panel enables you to adjust the keyboard repeat rate, which determines how long a key must be held down before it starts repeating, and how fast it repeats when you continue to hold it down. You can choose any settings supported by the computer system; if you need a rate even slower, or you want to turn off the keyboard repeat feature altogether, use the RepeatKeys feature in the Accessibility Options properties.
To change the way your keyboard responds:
 1.      In Control Panel, choose the Keyboard icon.
 2.      On the Speed tab, drag a slider bar to adjust keyboard behavior:
To adjust how long you must hold down a key before it begins repeating, drag the Repeat Delay slider.
To adjust how fast a key repeats when you hold it down, drag the Repeat Rate slider.
 3.      Choose OK.
 
You can test the repeat delay and repeat rate by selecting the checkbox below the sliders and then holding down a key.
Using Dvorak Keyboard Layouts
Windows NT 4.0 includes Dvorak keyboard layouts that make the most frequently typed characters on a keyboard more accessible to people who have difficulty typing on the standard QWERTY layout. There are three Dvorak layouts: one for people who use two hands to type, one for people who type only with their left hand, and one for people who type only with their right hand. All three Dvorak keyboard layouts are included with the Windows NT 4.0 CD-ROM. The left- or right-hand keyboard layouts can also be useful for people who type with a wand. You do not need to modify your hardware keyboard to use these layouts.
A keyboard layout is a map or a definition of how keys are laid out on your keyboard, and the keyboard layout you use is determined by software in your computer. The letters on your keys indicate the standard layout for your keyboard. There are many different keyboard layouts in use throughout the world; the one you ordinarily use depends on the country you are in and the language you use. The letters on your keys indicate the standard layout for your keyboard.
Dvorak keyboard layouts are based on designs created by Dr. August Dvorak during the 1930s and 1940s. Dr. Dvorak studied the way people type standard English, and determined the most common letter combinations. He then designed new keyboard layouts to speed up typing and reduce fatigue. These layouts, now called Dvorak or simplified keyboard layouts, were initially developed for two-handed typists. Following World War II, Dvorak layouts were developed for typists who use the right or left hand alone.
Dvorak layouts reduce the amount of motion required to type common English text. This may help avoid some types of repetitive strain injuries associated with typing. Studies have also shown an increase in typing speed and accuracy when using the Dvorak layout for two hands. The one-handed layouts dramatically reduce the amount of motion required for users who type with a single hand.
To select a Dvorak keyboard layout:
 1.      In Control Panel, choose the Keyboard icon.
 2.      On the Language tab, choose Properties.
 3.      In the Keyboard Layout list, select United States-Dvorak.
 4.      Choose OK.
 
Windows NT 4.0 also enables you to switch between two or more layouts quickly by using a single keystroke. This is especially useful for people who rely on the one-handed or two-handed Dvorak layouts but share their computer with another person who does not. See the section “Using Custom Configurations for Individuals” later in this document.
You may need to switch back and forth between the Dvorak layout and another layout. An easy way to do this is to set up the Dvorak layout as another language, and then switch back and forth between languages. To do so, follow these steps:
To switch between a Dvorak layout and another layout:
 1.      In Control Panel, choose the Keyboard icon.
 2.      On the Input Locales tab, choose Add.
 3.      In the Input Locales box, select a language, and then choose OK.
      Note  It does not matter which language you choose, because the Dvorak layout will be applied to the language instead of the normal keyboard layout for that language. It is helpful to choose a language that has a different two-letter code to indicate which language is in use. We recommend choosing Danish because it uses "Da" as its two-letter code, which might be helpful in distinguishing it as the Dvorak layout.
 4.      If the new Input Locale is not the one you were originally using, select the Input Locale to which you want to add the Dvorak layout, and then select Properties.  If the new Input Locale is the same as the one you were originally using, the Input Locale Properties dialog box will appear automatically.
      Note  Be sure to apply the Dvorak layout to the new Input Locale, and not to the original Input Locale.
 5.      In the Keyboard Layout box, select the US-Dvorak, US-Dvorak for left hand, or US-Dvorak for right hand layout, and then choose OK.
 6.      In the Switch Locales box, select the option you want to use to switch locales.
 7.      If you want a constant language indicator on the screen, select the Enable Indicator On Taskbar check box.
 8.      Choose OK.
 9.      You will be prompted to insert the Windows NT installation CD-ROM. Follow the instructions on your screen from that point on.
 
Adjusting Mouse Properties for Easier Use
The following summarizes mouse settings you can change. For additional features related to the mouse, see the section on the MouseKeys feature earlier in this document and the section, “Adjusting Mouse Properties To Improve Visibility” later in this document.
Adjusting Mouse Speed
You can adjust the speed at which the mouse pointer moves when you move the mouse.
To adjust the speed of the mouse pointer:
 1.      In Control Panel, choose the Mouse icon, and then select the Motion tab.
 2.      In the Pointer Speed area, drag the slider bar to select a mouse pointer speed between Slow and Fast.
 3.      Choose OK.
 
Snap to Default
To make the mouse pointer automatically move to the default button (such as OK and Apply) in dialog boxes:
 1.      In Control Panel, choose the Mouse icon and then select the Motion tab.
 2.      In the Snap to Default area, select the checkbox for Snap mouse to the default button in dialogs.
 3.      Choose OK.
 
Switching Mouse Buttons
If you are left-handed or have difficulty using the left button on your mouse, you can reverse the buttons so that the right mouse button is the primary button.
To reverse the mouse buttons:
 1.      In Control Panel, choose the Mouse icon.
 2.      On the Button tab, select Right-Handed or Left-Handed in the Button Configuration area.
 3.      Choose OK.
 
Setting Mouse Double-Click Speed
Windows and many programs support double-clicking as a shortcut for common tasks. To double-click, you must click the mouse button twice in rapid succession without moving it more than a certain amount. If you have difficulty clicking twice rapidly, you can increase the amount of time you have between the first and the second mouse clicks.
To increase the amount of time you can take between clicks:
 1.      In Control Panel, choose the Mouse icon.
 2.      On the Buttons tab, go to the Double-Click Speed area, and then drag the slider to the right.
 3.      To test the speed, double-click the image in the Test Area.
 4.      Choose OK.
 
You can also adjust the amount of tolerance the mouse has for movement while double-clicking. The physical action of pressing the mouse button down twice rapidly causes the mouse to move a little and Windows NT 4.0 adjusts for that. If you find that your double-clicks are not being recognized, or you have tremors in your hand, wrist or arm, you might want to increase the tolerance that Windows NT 4.0 has for movement between mouse clicks. The default value is 4 pixels of horizontal or vertical movement between the two clicks of a double-click.
 
Note   the procedure described below is for advanced users only.
 
To increase the amount of mouse movement between clicks:
 1.      Back up the System.dat and User.dat files from the Windows folder.
 2.      From the Start menu, Select Run . . .
 3.      Type “Regedit” (without the quotes) and press ENTER.
 4.      Click the "+" signs to expand the key HKEY_CURRENT_USER.
 5.      Click the "+" signs to expand the key Control Panel.
 6.      Select Mouse.
 7.      Select DoubleClickWidth.
 8.      Select Modify on the Edit menu.
 9.      Type the desired number of pixels and press Enter.
10.      Select DoubleClickHeight.
11.      Select Modify on the Edit menu.
12.      Type the desired number of pixels and press Enter
13.      Close Regedit. You will need to shut down and then restart the computer for the change to take effect.
 
Features for People with Visual Impairments
This section summarizes some features in Windows NT 4.0 that can assist people with low vision. These options are available on all computers running Windows NT 4.0.
Adjusting Display Properties to Improve Visibility
Setting Size and Color Schemes
Windows NT 4.0 enables you to adjust the size and color of most screen elements, such as window text, menus, and caption bars. This can make the system easier to use and can reduce eyestrain. The following procedures describe how to customize these elements.
To change the appearance of screen elements:
 1.      In Control Panel, choose the Display icon. Or use the right mouse button to click an empty place on the desktop, and then click Properties.
 2.      On the Appearance tab, select a scheme from the Scheme list. You will see a preview of what the scheme will look like.
 3.      Choose OK.
 
To customize a desktop scheme or create a new scheme:
 1.      In Control Panel, choose the Display icon.
 2.      On the Appearance tab, select the scheme you want to start with.
 3.      To change the appearance of each screen element, click that element in the Item list, or click the depiction of that element in the preview. Then change the settings in the Size and Color areas for Item and Font.
 4.      To save the custom settings, choose Save As, and then type a name for the scheme. That name will appear in the Scheme list, so you can choose the settings again at any time.
 5.      Choose OK.
 
Adjusting Screen Font Size
Depending on the capabilities of your display adapter, you may be able to choose between two sizes for the Windows system font.
You cannot choose a system font larger than the two choices offered, because many dialog boxes would then stretch off the screen, making some items, such as OK buttons, unusable. However, if Font Size choices are not available, or if the font still isn’t large enough for you, consider using a commercial screen magnification utility. Such utilities provide pan and zoom capabilities to enable you to view a virtual desktop that is larger than your actual display.
The system font is used to display information in some programs and dialog boxes. The system font is always available, even in low-memory situations and critical error conditions, so it cannot be scaled. You can select either a large or small font appropriate for your display settings.
To choose a large or small system font:
 1.      In Control Panel, choose the Display icon.
 2.      On the Settings tab, select either the large or small font option in the Font Size list.
 3.      Choose OK. You will need to shut down and then restart the computer for the change to take effect.
 
 
Note   The Font Size feature may only be available for high-resolution displays. You can change the screen resolution using the Settings tab in the Display properties. However, not all monitors and display adapters support high-resolution mode.
 
Adjusting the Icon Size
If you have difficulty seeing or recognizing the various icons that are displayed, you can adjust the display so that they are larger. You can increase the number of points used to display each icon using the “Large Icon view.” Normally, icons are displayed 32-points wide and 32-points high. Icons are always square.
To adjust the large icon size:
 1.      In Control Panel, choose the Display icon.
 2.      On the Appearance tab, select the scheme you want to start with.
 3.      In the Item list, select Icon.
 4.      In the Size box, select a larger size.
 5.      To save these settings, choose Save As . . . , and then type a name for the scheme. That name will appear in the Scheme list, so you can choose the settings again at any time.
 6.      Choose OK.
 
Adjusting Window Borders for Changing Window Size
If you have trouble positioning the mouse on a window border so that you can adjust the window size, or if you cannot see the border of windows, you can increase the window border width.
To adjust the window border width:
 1.      In Control Panel, choose the Display icon.
 2.      On the Appearance tab, select the scheme you want to start with.
 3.      In the Item list, select Active Window Border.
 4.      In the Size box, select a larger size.
 5.      To save these settings, choose Save As . . .  and type a name for the scheme. That name will appear in the Scheme list, so you can choose the settings again at any time.
 6.      Choose OK.
 
You can also resize a window by using the keyboard instead of the mouse.
To adjust the window size using the keyboard:
 1.      Press ALT+SPACE to select the window’s control menu, and then choose the Size command.
 2.      Press an arrow key to select the top, bottom, left or right border to resize. The mouse pointer will move to the corresponding window edge.
 3.      Press the arrow keys to move the selected window edge, and then press ENTER when you are finished. Or you can press ESC to cancel.
 
Adjusting the Desktop Pattern or Wallpaper
If the desktop pattern or wallpaper causes eye strain, you can adjust them using the Display icon in Control Panel.
To change the desktop pattern or wallpaper:
 1.      In Control Panel, choose the Display icon.
 2.      On the Background tab, select the pattern or wallpaper you want from the respective lists.
 3.      Choose OK.
 
Adjusting the Text Size of Windows NT 4.0 Messages
You can adjust the font size in regular messages displayed by Windows NT 4.0.
To change the font size in Windows NT 4.0 messages:
 1.      In Control Panel, choose the Display icon.
 2.      On the Appearance tab, select Message Box in the Item list.
 3.      In the Font, Size, and Color lists, select the settings you want.
 4.      Choose OK.
 
Adjusting Text Size in Command Prompt Windows
For MS-DOS sessions, or for programs that run under MS-DOS, you can adjust the size of text displayed in the window.
To change text size in any MS-DOS window:
 1.      Press ALT+SPACE and then select the Properties command.
 2.      From the Font page, select the appropriate size from the Font Size listbox.
 3.      Choose OK.
 
To change the text size for an MS-DOS program:
 1.      Use the right mouse button to click the program name in My Computer. Or select the program name, and then press SHIFT+F10.
 2.      Choose Properties.
 3.      On the Font tab, select the size you want to use when running this program.
 4.      Choose OK.
 
Limiting the Number of Fonts
You can limit the number of fonts used throughout Windows to one or more of your own choosing. To do this, use the Fonts icon in Control Panel to remove all the fonts you don’t want to appear. If you remove all TrueType® scaleable fonts and leave only raster fonts, you can also restrict the sizes that will be used. Removing fonts does not delete them from the hard drive, so the fonts can be reinstalled easily for later use.
 
Note   This operation will also limit the number of fonts available to applications. This will affect the display of documents on the screen and how they are printed. This operation should be used with caution.
 
To limit your system to a single font:
 1.      Create a new folder on your desktop or hard disk, and give it a name such as Other Fonts.
 2.      In Control Panel, choose the Fonts icon.
 3.      Select all the fonts in your Fonts folder, and then move them to the new folder named Other Fonts. (The system font is not listed, so it remains even when you delete all other fonts.)
 4.      Shut down and then restart your computer.
 
To restore the fonts:
 1.      Move or copy the fonts from your Other Fonts folder to the Fonts folder in Control Panel.
 2.      Shut down and then restart your computer.
 
Adjusting Mouse Properties to Improve Visibility
If you have difficulty seeing or following the mouse pointer, you can set the following characteristics to improve its visibility:
·      Pointer size
·      Pointer color
·      Pointer speed
·      Pointer animation
 
Using Mouse Pointer Schemes for Better Visibility
Windows NT 4.0 allows for custom mouse pointers. There are 14 different mouse pointers used. For example, the default pointer for when the system is busy is an hourglass symbol. To make setting up pointers easier, Windows NT 4.0 includes 12 mouse pointer schemes. They are:
 
3D-Bronze
3D-White
Conductor
Dinosaur
Hands 1
Hands 2
Magnified
Old Fashioned
Variations
Animated Hourglasses
Windows Animated
Windows Default
 
If the mouse pointer schemes are not shown, you must install them depending on the type of media used to install Windows:
CD-ROM or Network Installation:
 1.      On the Start menu, select Settings, and then select Control Panel.
 2.      Choose the Add/Remove Programs icon.
 3.      Click on the Windows NT Setup tab
 4.      In the list of Components, select Accessories.
 5.      Press ALT-D or click the Details button.
 6.      Scroll down and select the Mouse Pointers check box.
 7.      Press ENTER or select OK to close the Accessories details dialog box.
 8.      Choose OK, and then follow the instructions on your screen.
 
To adjust the appearance of the mouse pointer:
 1.      In Control Panel, choose the Mouse icon.
 2.      On the Pointer tab, select the appropriate scheme, and then choose OK.
 
Improving Audible Feedback
Windows NT 4.0 enables you to assign audible cues to many actions or events, such as the opening or closing of a window. These sounds can be useful if you cannot see the visual cues on the screen. For information on customizing these sounds, see the section, “Customizing Sound Schemes” later in this document.
Adjusting the Text Cursor to Improve Visibility
You can increase the visibility of the text cursor by changing the rate at which it flashes. The text cursor is the vertical bar that appears when you're editing or selecting text.
To change the speed at which the text cursor flashes:
 1.      In Control Panel, choose the Keyboard icon.
 2.      On the Speed tab, go to the Cursor Blink Rate area, and then drag the slider bar to choose a speed.
 3.      Choose OK.
 
Features for People Who Are Deaf or Hard-of-Hearing
The following sections summarize features for people who are deaf or hard-of-hearing. See also the descriptions of the SoundSentry and ShowSounds features earlier in this document.
Adjusting Sound Properties to Improve Feedback
Adjusting the Volume
If your computer has a sound card, you can adjust the volume of all sounds played by Windows by using the Sounds icon in Control Panel. You can also adjust the sound volume by using the speaker icon on the taskbar or by using Volume Control.
 
Note   This doesn’t affect the PC’s built in speaker. Only sounds generated by a sound card, such as the Windows Sound System®, SoundBlaster® or similar multimedia sound cards can be adjusted.
 
To adjust the volume of your speakers by using the speaker icon on the taskbar:
 1.      Choose the speaker icon on the taskbar.
 2.      Drag the Volume slider bar to the setting you want.
 3.      Choose OK.
 
To adjust the volume of your speakers by using Volume Control:
 1.      On the Start menu, select Programs, select Accessories, select Multimedia, and then select Volume Control.
 2.      Drag the Volume slider bar to the setting you want.
 3.      Choose OK.
 
You can also control speaker volume by choosing the Multimedia icon in Control Panel and then selecting the Audio tab. For more information, look up “Volume Control” in the Help Index.
Customizing Sound Schemes
Windows provides a wide variety of sounds that you can associate with many events. These events can be generated by Windows or by programs. If you have difficulty distinguishing between the default sounds, you can choose a new sound scheme, or design your own to make the sounds easier to identify. Sound schemes can also help draw attention to or provide additional feedback for tasks as you do them.
To change the sounds associated with any event:
 1.      In Control Panel, choose the Sounds icon.
 2.      On the Sounds tab, select a sound scheme from the Schemes list.
 3.      Select an event from the Events list, and then select the appropriate sound from the Name box.
 4.      Choose OK.
 
Chat
You can use the Chat utility to have an electronic conversation with up to seven other people who are using Windows NT 4.0 or Windows 95, and whose computers are connected through a network or by modems. Unlike an electronic mail message that you compose, save, and then send to another person, a Chat message is visible to others as you type it.
Chat is useful for people who are deaf or hard-of-hearing. Chat provides an alternative form of communication when an interpreter or a text telephone (called a “TT” or “TDD”) is not available.
To open a window by using Windows NT Explorer, on the Start menu, select Programs, then select Accessories, then choose Chat.
To learn how to use Chat, see the Chat Help.  Chat will not respond to chat requests unless NETDDE is loaded. When you load Chat, it automatically loads NETDDE if it isn’t already present. In order to be notified of chat requests, place either NETDDE or Chat in your StartUp Group.
Features for People With Seizure Disorders
Adjusting the Rate at Which Objects Flash
Repetitive flashing signals can trigger seizures in some individuals. You can adjust the rate at which most objects flash to select a frequency that is less likely to trigger seizures. Other programs should tie all of their flashing signals to the cursor blink rate you set.
To change the speed at which objects flash:
 1.      In Control Panel, choose the Keyboard icon.
 2.      On the Speed tab, drag the slider bar in the Cursor Blink Rate area to change the speed.
 3.      Choose OK.
 
Other Ease-of-Use Features in Windows NT 4.0
This section provides information about using and customizing Windows NT 4.0 to make it easier to use.
Using System Policies to Control How the Computer is Configured
Network administrators can use system policies to control how the computer is configured. The following policies are of particular interest for controlling the computer configuration for people with disabilities.
 
Policy Name      Description

Custom Programs Folder      Customizes the contents of the Programs folder.
Custom Desktop Icons      Customizes desktop icons.
Custom Startup Folder      Customizes the contents of the StartUp folder.
Custom Network Neighborhood      Customizes the contents of Network Neighborhood.
Custom Start Menu       Customizes what is listed on the Start menu.
Hide All Items On Desktop      Prevents access to all items on the desktop.
Don’t Save Settings At Exit      Prevents settings from being written to the file system when you shut down Windows.
Wallpaper Name      Specifies the bitmap to be used as the wallpaper.
Color Scheme      Specifies the color scheme to use automatically.
For detailed information about using system policies, see the MS Windows NT Server 4.0 documentation.
Using Windows NT Explorer
Windows NT Explorer enables you to navigate through files and other objects in your computer or the network. It provides a consistent interface on all types of objects and can be an easier way to navigate to objects on the desktop than standard keyboard techniques.
To open a window by using Windows NT Explorer, on the Start menu, select Programs, and then choose Windows NT Explorer. You can also click a folder by using your right mouse button, or select a folder and then press SHIFT+F10, and then choose Explore.
Windows NT Explorer enables you to choose from several different views of folders and files, including single-column or multiple-column lists. The Details view can be easier to navigate for people who have difficulty navigating within complex groups of objects.
The following summarizes some shortcuts for using Windows NT Explorer and other common navigational elements in Windows NT 4.0.
·      To copy a file, press CTRL while you drag the file to a folder. Or use the Copy command on the File menu.
·      To create a shortcut, press CTRL+SHIFT while you drag the file to the desktop or a folder. Or use the New command on the File menu.
·      To close the current folder and all its containing folders, press SHIFT and click the Close (X) button on the folder.
·      To move among tabs in a properties dialog box, press CTRL+TAB or CTRL+SHIFT+TAB. Or press TAB until the focus is on the tab itself, and then use arrow keys to select other tabs.
 
Using Windows NT Shortcuts
This section summarizes some of the shortcuts you can use with Windows NT.
Shortcuts for a Selected Object
 
Shortcut      Action

F2       Rename
F3       Find
CTRL+x      Cut
CTRL+c      Copy
CTRL+v       Paste
DEL      Delete
SHIFT+DEL      Delete file immediately without putting it in the Recycle Bin
aLT+ENTER      Display properties
aLT + double-click      Display properties
CTRL+click the right mouse button      Place alternative commands on the context menu (such as the Open With command; these alternative commands are automatically included when the menu is displayed using SHIFT+F10)
SHIFT + double-click      Open Windows NT Explorer; if the object does not have an Explore command, this starts the default action (usually the Open command)
Shortcuts for Managing Folders and Windows NT Explorer
 
Shortcut      Action

f4       In Windows NT Explorer, display contents of the desktop in a list.
f5      Refresh display.
f6      In Windows NT Explorer, move the focus between panes.
CTRL+g      In Windows Explorer, choose the Go To command.
CTRL+z      Undo
CTRL+a      Select All
BACKSPACE       Go to the folder one level up.
Shortcuts in Windows NT Explorer
The following shortcut keys work in the left-hand pane of the Windows NT Explorer:
 
Shortcut      Action

* on numeric keypad       Expand everything under the selection.
 – on numeric keypad      Collapse the selection.
RIGHT ARROW       Expand the current selection if it is not expanded; otherwise, go to the first subfolder.
LEFT ARROW       Collapse current selection if it is expanded; otherwise, go to the selection one level up.
CTRL + arrow key      Scroll without moving the selection.
Shortcuts in the Common Open and Save Dialog Boxes
 
Shortcut      Action

F4      Display the Save/Look-In list.
F5       Refresh the view.
BACKSPACE       Go to the folder one level up if the focus is on the View window.
shift+f10      When pressed while the focus is in the file list area and no file is selected, it presents a menu of options to change the display of file names. If a file is already selected, pressing CTRL+SPACE will cancel the selection.
Using Shortcut Menus
Windows NT 4.0 enables you to perform many commands conveniently by using shortcut menus. Many objects have shortcut menus containing the most commonly used commands you can perform on those objects.
To access an object’s shortcut menu, click the object by using the right mouse button, or select the object by using the keyboard, and then press SHIFT+F10.
Using the Start Menu and Taskbar
You can display the Start menu by pressing CTRL+ESC.
When you open a program, document, or window, a button appears on the taskbar. You can use this button to quickly switch between the windows you have open, similar to pressing ALT+TAB or ALT+ESC.
To use the taskbar with the keyboard instead of a mouse:
 1.      Press CTRL+ESC to display the Start menu, and then press ESC.
 2.      Press TAB to move the keyboard focus to the taskbar (note: there will be no visual indication that the taskbar now has the focus), then press the right or left arrow keys to select the appropriate button. Or press SHIFT+F10 to open the taskbar’s context menu.
 3.      To switch to the selected program, press ENTER. Or display the program’s context menu by pressing SHIFT+F10.
Or, to perform other commands on the selected program, press SHIFT+F10 to display a context menu.
 
You can modify the contents of the Start menu to present a simplified view or to provide more convenient access to frequently used commands.
To add menu items to the Start menu:
 1.      On the Start button, select Settings.
 2.      Select Taskbar, and then select the Start Menu Programs tab.
 3.      Select Add, and then select Browse.
 4.      Locate the program you want to add, and then select it. Or type the program name in the Command Line box.
 5.      Choose Next, and then select the menu on which you want the program to appear. Or select the menu, and then choose Next.
 6.      Type the name that you want to see on the menu, and then choose Finish.
 7.      If Windows NT prompts you to choose an icon, choose one, and then choose Finish.
 
You can also add a program to the top of the Start menu by dragging the program's icon onto the Start button.
To remove menu items from the Start menu
 1.      On the Start button, select Settings.
 2.      Choose Taskbar, and then select the Start Menu Programs tab.
 3.      Choose Remove, and then locate the program you want to remove.
 4.      Select the program, and then choose Remove. Although this deletes the shortcut from the Start menu, the original program remains on your computer.
 
Using the Desktop
You can customize the desktop by adding shortcuts to your favorite programs, documents, and printers, and by changing its look to fit your mood and personality.
To adjust settings such as desktop color and background, use your right mouse button to click anywhere on the desktop, and then click Properties.
If you prefer using the keyboard instead of the mouse, the easiest way to work with the objects on the desktop is to use Windows NT Explorer. Windows NT Explorer allows you to browse the contents of the desktop as if it were just another folder.
Assigning Hot Keys for Programs
You can assign “hot keys” to frequently used programs, documents, or folders, and then use that hot key to open the object or make it the active window.
To assign a hot key:
 1.      Create a shortcut to the object on the desktop or on the Start menu, and then open the shortcut’s properties. (To learn how to do this, see Windows Help.)
 2.      For Windows-based programs, select the Shortcut tab, and then type the key combination that you want to assign to this object in the Shortcut Key box.
For MS-DOS-based programs, select the Program tab, and then type the key combination in the Shortcut Key box.
 
When a program shortcut is placed on the desktop or on the Start menu, you can press its hot key at any time, and Windows NT 4.0 will open that program window; or, if it is not running, it will start the program for you.
Customizing Windows Help
You can change the size of information displayed in Windows Help to make it easier to read. You can also set the screen colors to match those you use for other screen elements in Windows NT 4.0.
To change the font size used in Help:
 1.      Open any Help topic.
 2.      On the toolbar, choose the Options button.
 3.      Select Fonts, and then choose Small, Medium, or Large.
 4.      Close all Help windows, and then restart Help.
 
To change the colors in Help to those you use in Windows NT:
 1.      Open any Help topic.
 2.      On the toolbar, choose the Options button, and then choose Use System Colors.
 3.      Close all Help windows, and then restart Help.
 
If you have trouble differentiating the colors used by Windows Help, you can adjust them by using the following subkey under the HKEY_CURRENT_USER hive:
Software\MS\Windows Help
This key allows you to control the following Help features:
·      IFJumpColor=red value green value blue value
      Specifies the color of text that, when chosen, leads to a new panel of information in another Help file.
·      IFPopupColor=red value green value blue value
      Specifies the color of text that, when chosen, displays a pop-up panel (the type of panel used for glossary definitions) located in a different Help file.
·      JumpColor=red value green value blue value
      Specifies the color of text that, when chosen, leads to a new panel of Help information.
·      MacroColor=red value green value blue value
      Specifies the color of text that, when chosen, runs a Help macro.
·      PopupColor=red value green value blue value
      Specifies the color of text that, when chosen, displays a pop-up panel (the type of panel used for glossary definitions).
      Valid values are 000 to 999, with 999 specifying the highest intensity. You must include three digits for each value, and you must include each color value. You can experiment with this setting to create a color that works best for you. The following table lists some colors you can work with:
 

Setting      Resulting color

000 000 000      Black
000 000 999      Blue
000 999 000      Green
999 000 000      Red
999 999 000      Yellow
999 000 999      Magenta
999 999 999      White
      For example: To change the jump color to red, you would type 999 000 000 for the value of JumpColor.
 
Building Custom Interfaces
You can build custom interfaces by creating folders with groups of shortcuts to frequently used documents or programs. This can be useful for presenting a simplified user interface or for reducing the amount of navigation required.
The best way to create a custom configuration is to follow the steps provided in Help. In the Help Index, look for the “customizing” topics. If you are familiar with earlier versions of Windows, see the topic, “More Ways to Customize Windows.”
Third-Party Utilities to Enhance Accessibility
Many hardware and software products from other vendors are available to make personal computers easier to use for people with disabilities. Among the different types of products available for the MS-DOS®, Windows, and Windows NT® operating systems are the following:
·      Programs that enlarge or alter the color of information on the screen for people with visual impairments
·      Programs that describe information on the screen in Braille or synthesized speech for people who are blind or have difficulty reading
·      Hardware and software utilities that modify the behavior of the mouse and keyboard
·      Programs that enable you to “type” using a mouse or your voice
·      Word or phrase prediction software that allows you to type more quickly and with fewer keystrokes
·      Alternate input devices, such as head-pointers, single switch, and puff-and-sip devices for people who cannot use a mouse or a keyboard
 
Getting More Information for People with Disabilities
Information from MS
For more information on MS products and services for people with disabilities, contact:

MS Sales Information Center One MS WayRedmond, WA 98052-6393      Voice telephone:Text telephone: Fax:      (800) 426-9400(800) 892-5234(206) 635-6100
Information is also available online at the following sources:
·      The MS Network (MSN)
·      CompuServe®
·      GEnie™
·      MS Download Service (MSDL), which you can reach by calling (206) 936-6735 any time except between 1:00 A.M. and 2:30 A.M. Pacific time. Use the following communications settings:
 

For this setting      Specify

Baud rate      1200, 2400, 9600, or 14400
Parity      None
Data bits      8
Stop bits      1
·      Various user-group bulletin boards (such as the bulletin-board services on the Association of PC User Groups network)
·      On the World-Wide Web at http:\\www.MS.com
 
Third-Party Product Information
MS distributes a catalog of third-party accessibility aids designed to work with the Windows and Windows NT operating systems. To obtain this catalog, contact the MS Sales Information Center at the address listed earlier in this section.
The Trace R&D Center at the University of Wisconsin–Madison produces a book and a CD-ROM that describe products that help people with disabilities use computers. The book, titled Trace ResourceBook, provides descriptions and photographs of about 2000 products. The CD-ROM, titled CO-NET CD, provides a database of more than 18,000 products and other information for people with disabilities. It is issued twice a year. To obtain these directories, contact:

Trace R&D CenterS-151 Waisman Center1500 Highland AvenueMadison, WI 53705-2280      Voice telephone:Text telephone:Fax:      (608) 263-2309(608) 263-5408(608) 262-8848
Assistive Technology Programs
For general information and recommendations on how computers can help specific people, you should consult a trained evaluator who can best match your needs with the available solutions. An assistive technology program in your area will provide referrals to programs and services that are available to you. To locate the assistive technology program nearest you, you can contact:

National Information System Center for Developmental DisabilitiesBenson BuildingUniversity of South CarolinaColumbia, SC 29208      Voice/text Telephone:Fax:      (803) 777-4435(803) 777-6058


 

0
 

Author Comment

by:davcos
ID: 1792172
What does this have to do with my question.  I am not hadicaped, (except in mental capacity).
0
 
LVL 5

Expert Comment

by:bchew
ID: 1792173
I beleive this TechNet article should answer your question:

 
PSS ID Number: Q160654
Article last modified on 05-22-1998
 
WinNT:3.5,3.51,4.0
 
winnt
 

======================================================================
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
The information in this article applies to:
 
 - Microsoft Windows NT Workstation versions 3.5, 3.51, and 4.0
 - Microsoft Windows NT Server versions 3.5, 3.51, and 4.0
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
 
SYMPTOMS
========
 
When Chkdsk is scheduled to run on a partition where Windows NT Server is
installed or when Autochk runs on this partition after restarting the
computer, one of the following error messages is displayed and neither
utility is run against the partition.
 
 - Can not lock volume for direct access
 
   -or-
 
 - Can not open volume for direct access
 
CAUSE
=====
 
This error message indicates that Chkdsk or Autochk could not lock the
partition on which you are attempting to run Chkdsk or Autochk. This can
occur if another utility or service (such as a virus checker program or a
disk monitoring program) locks the partition before you attempt to run
Chkdsk or Autochk.
 
RESOLUTION
==========
 
To have Chkdsk or Autochk lock the partition and perform their appropriate
tasks, complete the following steps:
 
1. Click the Start button, point to Settings, and then click Control
   Panel.
 
2. Double-click the Services icon and change the Start Type of the other
   third-party utility to Manual.
 
Additional query words: CHKDSK AUTOCHK
======================================================================
Keywords          : ntfilesys nthw NTSrvWkst ntutil kbhw kbtool
Version           : WinNT:3.5,3.51,4.0
Platform          : winnt
Issue type        : kbprb
Solution Type     : kbworkaround
=============================================================================
Copyright Microsoft Corporation 1998.


 

0
 

Author Comment

by:davcos
ID: 1792174
That would be really nice, especially if I knew which service it was?
0
 
LVL 5

Expert Comment

by:bchew
ID: 1792175
Press Ctrl+Alt+Delete and look in the task manager for what else is running or go to Control Panel, Services and look at all services that are set to start automatically.  If you don't understand what you see in either place post the results and I will try to help you decide which one(s) might be causing your problem.
0
 

Expert Comment

by:rmolihna
ID: 1792176
When does this message actually occur? CHKDSK occurs when it gets to the blue screen and actually builds the kernel.
0
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Do you feel like you are taking up all of your time constantly visiting users’ desks to make changes to email signatures? Wish you could manage all signatures from one central location, easily design them and deploy them quickly to users? Well, there is an easy way!

 

Author Comment

by:davcos
ID: 1792177
This message appears right after the dots on the blue screen.  I formatted this drive about a month ago because it would not convert to NTFS (the dealer set it up, apparntly as a fat32) and I was getting the same error.  I formatted the drive with NT as a NTFS and all was well.  A week ago, I just happend to notice the error after I set the checkdsk routine to run after next startup,... It's been there ever since.
0
 

Expert Comment

by:rmolihna
ID: 1792178
Try to do an fdisk from MSDOS and delete and create primary partition again. Format drive as dos, then try load NT on dos partition. After that convert to NTFS and run CHKDSK.
0
 

Author Comment

by:davcos
ID: 1792179
I was only trying to find out what has gone wrong, not reinstall NT Server on my Domain Controller.  I'm sure your suggestion would work, but what is causing this?  One thing I have noticed, when this machine boots and the Adaptec drivers start, I shows something like...
C: 80h
D: 81h
82h (this shoud be E: but no drive letter is shown)

I don't know, the computer runs fine otherwise.  I just really don't want to reinstall.
0
 

Expert Comment

by:rmolihna
ID: 1792180
Can you run the utilities from the Adaptec side. I mean, when the Adaptec board is checking for hardware attached to itself, you can do a control A and do some checking as well as setting up some parameters for start unit command, enable disconnection and initiate sync negotiation. Also has some advance config options and can run some SCSI utilities.
0
 

Author Comment

by:davcos
ID: 1792181
Yes, I can run the utilities from the Adapttec side, and everything seems normal.  All the devices are shown properly and seem to be functioning fine.

0
 
LVL 5

Accepted Solution

by:
Mujeeb082598 earned 100 total points
ID: 1792182
Hi :)

U can check that which other porgram is getting invoked while the auotcheck starts at boot time. Run regedt32.exe

Go to the following registry

[HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\Session Manager]

Do not double click on the above key to open it. Just stay on it and check for the following it should me the first one in the list in the right side of the regedt32 pannel.

BootExecute : REG_MULTI_SZ : autocheck autochk *

The above value in the key is responsible for running the chkdsk with /f option if it finds the drive dirty bit set. This dirty bit is set when u run the chkdsk with /f option and choose y to be run at startup time.

To see whether or not the dirty bit is set for the drive use the command chkntfs which was included with sp2 onwards.

Here are the options available with chkntfs command
E:\>chkntfs /?
CHKNTFS drive: [...]
CHKNTFS /D
CHKNTFS /X drive: [...]
CHKNTFS /C drive: [...]

  drive:         Specifies a drive letter.
  /D             Restores the machine to the default behavior; all drives are
                 checked at boot time and chkdsk is run on those that are dirty.

                 This undoes the effect of the /X option.
  /X             Excludes a drive from the default boot-time check.  Excluded
                 drives are not accumulated between command invocations.
  /C             Schedules chkdsk to be run at the next reboot.

If no switches are specified, CHKNTFS will display the status of the dirty bit for each drive.

Mind u by using the /x with chkntfs does not reset the dirty bit for the drive. It only excludes the drive to be checked. The only way the dirty bit is initialized is when the chkdsk do finishes checking the drive and fixes it if any problem exists.

Hope this help and solve your problem.
0
 

Author Comment

by:davcos
ID: 1792183
Mujeeb,

Thanks for the help, I think I'm almost to the point of fixing this (with your help.  Heck I may not even have to format the drive as some have suggested and I have done before.  Installing NT is not one of my favorite task, especially on my own computer!

Here is what I found when I inspected the regestery key you suggested...it appears exactly as shown on my computer including the ??...

[HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\Session Manager]

looks like this...

BootExecute:REG_MULTI_SZ:autocheck autochk/r\??\C:AUTOCHECK AUTOCHK/R\??\C:autocheck autochk*

is it broken?
0
 
LVL 5

Expert Comment

by:Mujeeb082598
ID: 1792184
Hi :)

I think what has happend for some reason other command have added the same thing again and agin and this the reason you are not able to lock the drive just change the entry to
BootExecute:REG_MULTI_SZ:autocheck autochk *

and now when u reboot the NT next time it will run the chkdsk and will reinialise the dirty bit after running and checking.
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