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Problem in stack(data structure in C)

Posted on 1998-11-19
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Last Modified: 2010-04-15
How to write a program using stack (in C language)which functions almost like a calculator. the program will receive inputs like for example : 12 * (15 - 6) + 388  
The program will calculate +, -, *, /, (), operations.  
The priority operations are :

   1st. ( )
   2nd. *, /
   3rd. +, -

The program will print the operation for example like The question above :

15 - 6
12 * 9
108 + 388
= 496
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Question by:tagheuer
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4 Comments
 
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Expert Comment

by:Answers2000
ID: 1254429
Easiest Answer is to write convert command strings to RPN (Reverse Polish Notation)

Basically this is a stack machine, you push values on the stack.  Operations then pull last 2 items and do the work

e.g.
15 - 6 becomes 15 6 -
15 is pushed on stack
6 is pushed on stack
- pulls last 2 items from stack, does the operation
- pushes the result back on stack

15 - 6 + 4 becomes 15 6 - 4 +
same idea
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Accepted Solution

by:
emmons earned 30 total points
ID: 1254430
Some code from imlandris...
#include "stdio.h"

#define Err(n)       printf(errm[n-1])
#define Guard(n)     if(sp<n-1){ Err(1); break; }

char errm[3][40] = { "Insufficient stack elements\n",
                     "Stack full\n",
                     "Invalid input\n"
                   };

char base = 'd',buf[160];
int cp=0;

main()

{       long stk[10],mem,sp;
        int i;
        char c,num[20];

        sp=-1;
        mem=0;

        do
        {       c=getnext();
                switch(c)
                {       case 'x':
                                base='x';
                                if(sp>=0)
                                {       printf("\n");
                                        show(stk[sp]);
                                }
                                break;
                        case 'd':
                                base='d';
                                if(sp>=0)
                                {       printf("\n");
                                        show(stk[sp]);
                                }
                                break;
                        case '+':
                                Guard(2);
                                stk[sp-1]+=stk[sp];
                                --sp;
                                printf("\n");
                                show(stk[sp]);
                                break;
                        case '-':
                                Guard(2);
                                stk[sp-1]-=stk[sp];
                                --sp;
                                printf("\n");
                                show(stk[sp]);
                                break;
                        case '*':
                                Guard(2);
                                stk[sp-1]*=stk[sp];
                                --sp;
                                printf("\n");
                                show(stk[sp]);
                                break;
                        case '/':
                                Guard(2);
                                stk[sp-1]/=stk[sp];
                                --sp;
                                printf("\n");
                                show(stk[sp]);
                                break;
                        case 't':
                                printf("\n");
                                if(sp>=0)show(stk[sp]);
                                break;
                        case 'a':
                                printf("\n");
                                for(i=sp; i>=0; --i)show(stk[i]);
                                break;
                        case 'p':
                                Guard(1);
                                --sp;
                                break;
                        case 's':
                                mem=stk[sp];
                                break;
                        case 'r':
                                stk[sp]=mem;
                                break;
                        case 'm':
                                printf("\n");
                                show(mem);
                                break;
                        case 'q':
                        case '\n':
                        case '\r':
                        case ' ':
                                break;
                        default:
                                if('0'<=c && c<='9')
                                {       if(sp<9)
                                        {       backup();
                                                getnum(num);
                                                ++sp;
                                                if(base=='d')sscanf(num,"%ld",stk+sp);
                                                else sscanf(num,"%lx",stk+sp);
                                        }
                                        else Err(2);
                                }
                                else Err(3);
                }
        } while(c!='q');
}


show(a)
long a;

{       if(base=='d')printf("%ld\n",a);
        else printf("%lx\n",a);
        return;
}

getnext()

{       if(buf[cp]=='\0')getline();
        return(buf[cp++]);
}


backup()

{       if(cp>0)--cp;
        return;
}


getnum(num)
char *num;

{       int dp;

        dp=0;
        while( ('0'<=buf[cp] && buf[cp]<='9') || (base=='x' && 'a'<=buf[cp] && buf[cp]<='f') )num[dp++]=buf[cp++];
        num[dp]='\0';
        return;
}


getline()

{       char *sp,*dp;

        scanf("%s",buf);
        dp=buf;
        for(sp=buf; *sp!='\0'; ++sp)
        {       if(*sp!=8)*dp++=*sp;
                else dp=dp>buf?dp-1:dp;
        }
        *dp='\0';
        cp=0;
        return;
}
0
 

Author Comment

by:tagheuer
ID: 1254431
Theres a good one!!, any way thanks to you for helping me. I'll retype your codes and give you the feedback.
Actually I'm very new in C language especially in data sturcture chapter. May be you can help me (give an example on stack, recursion, queues and list).
Thank you again!!


0
 

Author Comment

by:tagheuer
ID: 1254432
to: answer2000,
Can you explain more details on your suggestion above to convert command strings to RPN (Reverse Polish Notation). I'm really don't understand. It will be better if yu can give some example.

thanks!!
0

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