operating systems.?

With windows 98 explain the following....
how the user environment/ interface is presented
how are the files/directory structures set-up..
the features available in the screen interface..
how Windows 98 allows back-up and file restoration facilities...
neo_00_mtxAsked:
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ViRoyConnect With a Mentor Commented:
      Ok, first the fundamentals... when it was programmed, since it was such a large project, many many teams were assigned to write different parts of the OS, and some of it was also bought from company's such as IBM... this is why its so big and has SOO many files...
       The main things that make windows operate correctly is the Registry, the registry is stored in 2 files User.exe and System.dat, all settings are loaded during the boot process... you can use Regedit.exe to view all the values in the registry, a 0 means OFF and 1 means ON...simple, everything in the entire computer has a value, even software.. actually MANY for software.

      The Kernel.exe is the core component that handles everything done in windows.. you click on something.. the kernel gets whatever it needs from RAM, HD, Hardware, Registry and sends it to the processor to be calculated, then it gets the info returned from the processor and uses it accordingly.

ie.. you dial into the internet by double clicking a icon...
     the kernel finds the registry values for the device used to
    connect.. then it looks at the drivers for it and then knows         how it works, it then passes a interupt request (IRQ) to the
    processor which then gets passes through the BUS (IDE,PCI)
    which then finally reaches the Modem (if u use this) and the
    modem also processes this with its chipset, like a calculator
    basically (simple processes)... then the modem responds
    with data which gets passed all the way back through.

    the core component for the graphics is the GDI.EXE (Graphical Data Interface).. it communicates between the kernel and the video card to display whatever is needed (and badly i might add), the kernel has the "look" (explorer, Control panel) of windows 98 except for applications that are not built into the system. the directory tree is actually on the HD, called FAT (File Allocation Table) all it does is tell where a file can be found exactly on a 3d platter (the HD) by using markers called Heads and Cylinders. windows basically just looks at it and makes it look all nice and neat... i could do something similar in BASIC (old programming language for DOS that speaks for itself).

      all data on a hard drive conforms to a specific standard called a FAT... there are many proprietary forms (NTFS, HPFS...)
the data is written as organized as possible and the File Allocation Table points to all data on a HD.
FYI... Windows NT, NT means "New Technology" its FAT is called
NTFS or New Technology File System... HPFS is Hewlett packards version for their operating systems.. Hewlett Packard File System.

      as far as "the features available in the screen interface.. " i dont understand what you are asking, but remember... every single option available on the entire computer is actually changed in the registry... check out HTTP://WWW.REGEDIT.COM
it goes into some detail about the registry, and has some very nice information about changing certain values to get options that you are not able to change normally. definatley worth checking out.

     Ok, now for swapfiles and paging... these can seriously affect a systems performance and can even make it crash permanently until reinstalled.
data that the kernel thinks will be used again soon is stored in RAM
ie.. you run a game then close it... most of the data required to start it will be stored in ram (video card type, ram, processor speed...)
   if you run out of RAM it will write it to the HD and call it Pagefile.sys and treats it as RAM.. this will slow down the computer ALOT, i think like 250million times slower depending on RAM speed and HD speed. you can set a maximum Pagefile.sys size... if it reaches that maximum, it starts to release the least used data from RAM and store the new data..
well, if you set this to 0bytes so that it NEVER makes a Pagefile.sys, and only have like 16mb RAM (Windows 98 minimum requirement) and try to run a large program like Office97, it will run out of RAM and Windows wont be able to recover cause it has no where to temporarily store important data... hence the page fault and cause of some BSOD's (Blue Screen Of Death)

Pagefile (Swapfile is same thing) settings can be found
in the control panel under -System-Performance Tab-Virual Memory-
by default it will say "Let windows manage my Virtual Memory"
which is perfectly fine unless you are fine tweaking your system and know exactly what you are doing. Virtual Memory is the Pagefile.sys, it calls it "Virtual" because its not actually real memory(RAM) but is treating it as so.

Whew, hope this answeres your questions..
       ViRoy
A+, MCP+I, MCSE+I
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larrypaloozaCommented:
Ummmmm. On the 9th day God said let Gates create Win98, I'm tired.  And it's been a mystery ever since.
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ZerquishCommented:
Easy question...

First of all, don't forget it: Windows sucks. Always keep this in mind.

(01). User Environment/Interface: Well, you just see a background and you have some icons on your desktop. No more to say about that. At the bottom of your screen you see a "Start" button and some icons too. When you hang over "Start" the text "Press here to begin" appears. It'd better be called "Press here to (Edited by Computer101) everything up". Anyway, everything happens through the start menu. If you want to use multiple users, it should be possible for every user to have it's own desktop and stuff like that but it never work like it should. You'd better do for Windoze NT Doesn'tWorkstation 4.0. (Best solution is Linux of course).

(02). Files/Directories Stucture: Each drive has a drive letter. It's not like in Linux where you have your / and then your drives. Here it's the opposite. You have your drives and then your folders. So when you open up your browser, you see A: (Floppy), C: (Harddisc), etc... Windows creates by itself some directories like \Windows\ and \Programs Files\ for example...

(03). Features Available In The Screen Interface: Actually, too much to write all this down. Everywhere you right-click, you have options or commands...

(04). Backup And Restore: None. Well, it has some, but they are bad. I'd recommend you to go find yourself a program and to use that one. Microsoft Backup (or whatever it's called) is really bad...

Well... I still don't understand your question... What operating system have you been using for years ? Anyhow, you should have used a computer to post this question. If you're used to work in Linux, start you X Server and take a look in KDE... It's alike... Besides of the fact that KDE does work.
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neo_00_mtxAuthor Commented:
too against windows and microsoft in general to give a suitable answer instead the answer was full of unnessesary smart comments.
would like an answer that answers the questions in full detail...
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ViRoyCommented:
oh yea... backup and restoration... windows 98's backup is really bad, the compression is horrible and it just overall a pain in the butt... it is best to use 3rd party utilities such as "Ghost"
it creates a compressed image of a HD and you can save it on a mass storage device (Tape backup, CD, Zip Disk)
i have several ghost images right now and would definatley reccomend using it for backups.
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ZerquishCommented:
Go buy yourself a book instead of asking stupid questions. If you're able to read of course.
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raven31337Commented:
Ok Zerquish, this is a help forum. You are supposed to help here...telling them to go read a book if you can read is...well, I think you can figure it out...

Windows 98 is actually an ok OS for a M$ product. The FAT filesystem took me forever but basicly it is:
-the FAT (a big "linked" list of clusters in use or not in use)
-Directory entries which list filename, filesize, attributes, and starting cluster of the file.

On boot it boots up DOS and then loads windows 98.
Explorer.exe handles the Desktop and start menu as well as the file interface. Hope that helped.
~Raven
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