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Newbie To Linux

Posted on 2001-06-17
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Last Modified: 2010-04-20
I have RH and got it installed pretty easily.  I installed everything since this is a machine I have set up for learning Linux.  I have set up myself as a user and it appears that I have root user equivalence when using LINUXCONF.  If I try to run certain programs or run Find I get "Permission Denied" errors out the wazoo.  I even edited the /etc/group file in an attempt to put the root group after the login id with no success.
How do I modify the specific permissions each user will have?  After that, what can I use to set it up as an internet sharing device?  Any good tutorials on that?
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Question by:slink9
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newmang earned 200 total points
ID: 6200908
There are two classes of users in Linux (and Unix), one is root and that user has God access, can get anywhere and do anything. All other users have restricted access as per the permissions set on individual files and directories.

When you installed RH it should have asked you to set up the root user and a non-root user, if you use this non-root user (which you should normally do as root is a very dangerous userid in the hands of the un-initiated) then you will be denied access to certain files & directories.

If you log on as a non-root user you can change to the root user by typing su - and then entering the root password, you then return to the non-root user by typing exit.

Note that the thing that identifies root is not the name as is commonly believed but the user number or UID which is found in the /etc/passwd file. If the UID and GID are set to 0 then the user has root privelege no matter what the name is.

You can check the permissions on directories and files using the ls -al variation on the ls command. This wil give you a 10 character list of permissions for each file and directory.

For files the permissions are as follows:

1 - the file type (d= directory, l=link, c=char mode device, b=block mode device etc)
2 - read access for file owner
3 - write access for file owner
4 - execute access for file owner
5 - read access for group
6 - write for group
7 - execute for group
8 - read for everyone
9 - write for everone
10 - execute for everyone.

For example

-rwxr-x--- filename fred mygroup

means that fred can read, write & execute filename, members of group mygroup can read and execute but not write to filename and other users can neither read, write or execute it. You change permissions with the chmod command - refer to the man page. Ownership of files is changed using the chown command - be careful with system files though.

Cheers - Gavin
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by:slink9
ID: 6215946
I was hoping to get more input, but I guess that won't be happening.
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