# Logical Bit Operations

Hi there,

I'm playing with logical Bit-Operations. I know a DWord or Integer on a 32bit Platform contains 32bit. Therefore i could pack up to 32 "booleans" into a DWord.

But yet, i was not successful to set a bit

i tried something like making constants like

const
(...)
MAX_10  = \$0000000A

and a Flag-Variable:

var
Flags: DWord;

to set a bit, i tried:

shouldn't that set a bit ?

but when i look at the value of Flags after that, it's still 0

how do i correctly set and clear bits within a DWord ?

Roger
LVL 2
###### Who is Participating?

Commented:
It is
to set the bit
and
Flags := (Flags and not MASK_01);
to clear the bit.

You can also get the Jedi Code Library from
It contains some bit fiddling functions.
0

Commented:
Hi Roger,

it seems you need some help with the logical operaters. Robert is right, you have to use "or", not "and". It's easy to understand why. Look at the following if statement:

result := (yourName = 'Ekelbert') and (yourNick = 'omsec');

Now we can convert that to:

result := false and true;    -> result = false

Or we can write:

result := 0 and 1;    -> result = 0

So to set a bit, you can't use "and". Do you understand that? I hope so. Here a list of the most important operators:

1010 or 1111 = 1111
1010 or 0001 = 1011

1010 and 1111 = 1010
1010 and 0001 = 0000

1010 xor 1111 = 0101
1010 xor 0001 = 1011

not 1010 = 0101
not 0001 = 1110

While operators like "+" and "-" often have effect on more than one bit (e.g. 1 + 1 = 10), all those logical operators from above have effect only bit by bit.

0

Commented:

DWord := 0;

// to set 1 at the second position:
DWord := DWord or  (1 shl 1);

// to set 1 at the position 5:
DWord := DWord or (1 shl 4);

//to set 0 at the position 5:
DWord := DWord xor (1 shl 4);

GunDamn
0

Commented:
>> //to set 0 at the position 5:
>> DWord := DWord xor (1 shl 4);

This is correct only if you know exactly that bit 5 was set before in the dword. If you don't know that, you should use "DWord := DWord and not (1 shl 4);". That's the better solution IMHO.
0

Commented:
GunDamn
0

Commented:
Yes, all in one you will have ("BitNo" lies between 0 and 31, both inclusively):

procedure SetBit(var Value: DWord; BitNo: Byte);
begin
Value := Value or (1 shl BitNo);
end;
procedure ClearBit(var Value: DWord; BitNo: Byte);
begin
Value := Value and not(1 shl BitNo);
end;
procedure ToggleBit(var Value: DWord; BitNo: Byte);
begin
Value := Value xor (1 shl BitNo);
end;
function GetBit(Value: DWord; BitNo: Byte): Boolean;
begin
GetBit := (Value shr BitNo) and 1 = 1;
end;

Regards, Hamilton.
0

Commented:
function GetBit(Value: DWord; BitNo: Byte): Boolean;
begin
GetBit := odd(Value shr BitNo);
end;

This should be a bit faster, I guess. Not 100% sure, though...

0

Commented:
You still remember that we know each other? I asked you for explaining me how to work with process and thread IDs some time ago. But I don't want to get off-topic here ... ;-)
Your improvement is very interesting, I have never had the idea to do it like that. But even if you are not 100 percent sure if it is really faster, you can ensure it is not slower. You may probably right, however, because "Odd" looks at the least significant bit to decide to return "True" or "False". That may be the same process as in my suggestion, but hopefully more efficiently in assembler.
Regards, Hamilton.
0

Commented:
Hi Hamilton,

of course I remember you, but I didn't remember from what questions exactly...

I've tested it. With Odd it is 15% faster. Well, but I had to make a 1000000 loop to get a stable result...  :-)

0

Commented:
Madshi, such optimizations are CPU dependent.
0

Commented:
Hi Robert,

generally you're right, but if you in this very case look at the assember code that Delphi makes out of those 2 functions, you'll see that the Odd variant will run faster on every CPU, it's just better asm code. If you use "and 1 = 1", you force Delphi to do exactly that. If you use "odd", Delphi is free to realize it in the most effective way. Please look at the assembler code. You'll see the difference...

0

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Commented:
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