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How to pass symbols in xml tag

Posted on 2001-09-14
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Last Modified: 2013-11-19
How to pass symbols in xml tag like:

<flag> <= STATIC</flag> it gives error at <=

It is giving me parser error.
How to pass other symbols like %, & does it give parsing error.


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Question by:vmandem
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GedB earned 150 total points
ID: 6483765
The problem is that some symbols confuse the parser.  With the less than sign (<) the parser thinks you have opened a new element.  When it fails to find a corresponding greater than sign to close the element it gives an error.

XML has two features to get around this problem.

1)   Character Encoding

2)   CDATA sections


Character Encoding involves replacing the symbol with an entity.  The main entitys are:

         &gt;          Greater than
         &lt;          Less than
         &amp;         Ampersand

Any other symbol can be represented with &#ddd; where ddd is the decimal character code or &#xhh; when nn is hexadecimal equivalent.  This would make the percentage sign &#37; or &#x25;

Declaring a CDATA section escapes the parser from the XML, and it treats everything inside the section as a character.

A CDATA section begins with <![CDATA[ and ends with ]]>

In this example you would use <flag><[!CDATA[ <= STATIC]]></flag>

If you are coding the XML yourself, then encoding is probably the best way to do it.

If you are bolting together you xml from other sources, then its probably easiest to use a CDATA section.
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by:vmandem
ID: 6484259
I found this answer in a book but anyway i will accept your answer and thankyou for your response.

VMandem
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