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KERNAL

What are the types of kernal available?List out its functions.
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soorya_12
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soorya_12
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slink9Commented:
Homework?  Look it up on www.google.com
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slink9Commented:
By the way, it is spelled KERNEL.  It will help to spell it right for the teacher, too.
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CrazyOneCommented:
KERNEL = The backbone of the Operating System. No KERNEL no OS.
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Chessy78207Commented:
Types of Kernel-Mode Drivers

There are three basic types of kernel-mode drivers, as shown in the previous figure. Each type has a slightly different structure and quite different functionality:

Highest level drivers, such as the system-supplied FAT, NTFS, and CDFS file system drivers (FSDs). Highest-level drivers always depend on support from underlying lower level drivers.
While a particular file system driver might or might not get support from one or more intermediate drivers, every file system driver ultimately depends on support from one or more underlying peripheral device (and possibly PnP hardware bus) drivers.

Intermediate drivers, such as a virtual disk, mirror, or device-type-specific class driver. Intermediate drivers also depend on support from underlying lower level drivers.
PnP function drivers that control specific peripheral devices on an I/O bus controlled by a PnP hardware bus driver are intermediate drivers, as are PnP filter drivers that insert themselves above or below PnP function drivers in the driver stack for any particular peripheral device. A subset of PnP function and filter drivers are also WDM function and filter drivers.

Any system-supplied class driver that exports a system-defined WDM class/miniclass interface is, in effect, an intermediate driver with one or more linked WDM miniclass drivers (sometimes called WDM minidrivers). Each linked WDM class/minidriver pair provides functionality equivalent to that of a WDM function driver or a WDM "software" bus driver.

PnP software bus drivers that present a set of child devices to which still higher level class, function, and/or filter drivers can attach themselves are also intermediate drivers. For example, a driver that controls a multifunction adapter with an on-board set of heterogeneous devices is a PnP software bus driver. Depending on the nature of the on-board devices and the interfaces used by its driver, such a driver also might be a WDM software bus driver. It would appear to still higher level drivers to be a PnP/WDM bus driver. To the operating system, the driver would appear as a PnP/WDM function driver for its own adapter that inserted itself into the driver stack over an underlying PnP hardware bus driver.

Lowest-level drivers, such as PnP hardware bus drivers that control an I/O bus on which some number of peripheral devices are connected. Lowest-level drivers do not depend on lower-level drivers, but control a physical peripheral device such as a bus.
Legacy drivers that control a physical peripheral device directly are lowest-level drivers, as are drivers such as the SCSI HBA (host bus adapter) driver.

PnP hardware bus drivers are system-supplied and usually control dynamically configurable I/O buses. The driver collaborates with the Plug and Play Manager to configure and reconfigure system hardware resources (such as mappings for device memory and IRQs) for all child devices connected to the I/O buses it controls. For its I/O buses, a PnP hardware bus driver subsumes some of the functionality that was provided exclusively by the HAL component in releases of the NT-based operating system prior to Windows 2000.

Network drivers also can be classified as one of the preceding basic types of drivers. For example, an NT-based server or redirector is a specialized file system driver; any driver in a transport stack is an intermediate driver; and a physical netcard (sometimes called a network interface controller or NIC) driver is a lowest-level device driver. The system provides specialized interfaces and support for network drivers, such as the NDIS (Network Device Interface Specification) library for drivers of NICs and for intermediate drivers at the lower edge of network transport stacks.

While the information in this section provides some useful overviews and background information for file system and network driver writers, it is primarily a design guide for writers of kernel-mode device and intermediate drivers, including WDM drivers. Writers of network intermediate and device drivers also should consult the Using the Network Driver Design Guide. File system driver writers should consult the IFS Kit.

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stevenlewisCommented:
don't forget popcorn kernel
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stevenlewisCommented:
read your book, study, ask your fellow students and teacher. what kind of IT will you make if we do your work for you?
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CrazyOneCommented:
Hi Chessy78207 since you are new here you are probably unaware if we suspect the question is about homework we don't supply the questioner with full answers. If it is homewrok we either try and help the questioner learn how to research for it or ignore the question or give a big generalization of the question. But we don't go into specifics and in a sense and do thier homework for them.
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slink9Commented:
You mean I have been getting all of this homework help and I wasn't supposed to?  Now you tell me!  I made straight A's all through high school with your help.  Don't stop now.  You have to get me through college and help me maintain that six figure job I have my sights set on.  What would I do without Homeworkcentral.com?  Ooops, wrong site.
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slink9Commented:
Hey, where's that delete button at?
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CrazyOneCommented:
Hehehehe pretty funny slink.
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sandra_8309Commented:
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SunBowCommented:
popcorn
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SunBowCommented:
<ugh> stevenlewis beat me. Like it or not, it is the true answer. kernel is core of os shells, got its name from popcorn, which can be fluffy and soft, except for the true grit at the core ... the kernel. See also layers, such as of onion.
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ITsheresomewhereCommented:
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ITsheresomewhereCommented:
Hello soorya_12,

It appears that you have abandoned this question. I will ask Community Support to close it unless you finalize it within 7 days. If there is no objection or further activity, I will suggest to:

    Accept Chessy78207's comment(s) as an answer.

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NetminderCommented:
Per recommendation, force-accepted.

Netminder
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