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intranet and internet

Posted on 2002-05-18
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Last Modified: 2010-04-26
1) I have some idea of s/w part but very little on hardware.
2) Our's is a windows NT setup with few servers and many workstations. Some 95/98/2000, unix, linux and sun solaris also there.
3) Can you give me idea of what a domain is and what a workgroup is. There can be more than one domains like one main one, administrator and others. Can there be more than one workgroups.
4) Also internet domain like bg.pa.com OR rsofto.bdtp.net AND mail domain like rsoft-tech.com. So is there internet domains and intranet domains as separate entities.
5) Can there be more than one mail servers and proxy/firewalls in a intranet. 6
6) Can we have a small hubs connecting to a main hub.
7) We have direct IP's and local IP's in systems or a mixture of both. Direct IP's have faster internet access. Can you explain the difference between them.
8) Where do modems and gateways come into play and where all can they exist.
9) Where do routers and bridges fit in in all this.
10) How is a mail server different from a proxy from a firewall.
11) Are all network operations due to hardware, protocols and operating system OR a lot more.
12) Can 95/98/2000 machines be kept in intranet easily.
13) How are unix, linux, sun solaris etc. varied operating system machines incorporated into intranet and then in internet.
14) Is there no clash over hardware to be used by such diverse systems and how these clashes are resolved.
15) What do acquiring a internet connection and account mean.

Please explain in detail.

--- k_murli_krishna
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3.  These are both Microsoft networking terms.  A domain is centrally controlled.  A server dictates user accounts and who has access to do what.  A workgroup does not need a server.  Each individual computer user decides to allow or not allow access to his/her computer's services.

5.  As many as you need.  Exact setup is a complex issue beyond the scope of this general question.

6.  Yes, just use the 'uplink' ports on the small hubs.  Without specialized hubs, two given computers cannot be more than 7 hubs away from each other.  Keeping this limit, you can have several hubs plugged into other hubs.

7.  This is unclear what you mean.  One computer may use multiple IPs if configured properly.  Again, this is a complex setup issue.  For all practical purposes, there should be no speed difference.

8 and 9.  Gateways, routers, and modems are all used to connect your internal network with some other network.  Which kind you need is dependent on your setup.  A 'gateway' is simply a term for a computer connected to both the internal and external network.  It is often running firewalling software to protect against unauthorized access.  It may connect to the external network with a modem of some type.  The easiest way to think of a router is to compare it to a super network hub.  It can make decisions about information flow instead of just passing it on.  Only the most high volume networks will need a router.

10. A mail server deals with email.  A proxy does work for another computer.  For example, a web proxy will request web pages from the internet for a computer on your internal network.  The proxy software can be configured to prevent unauthorized use.

11.  Yes, networking happens over the hardware.  The protocol is the 'language' of the network.  The operating system is the user's interface to the network.

12.  Yes.

13.  This is all possible.  Exact setup depends on your configuration.  This is a complex issue beyond the scope of a general question.

14.  This should not happen among compatible hardware.  Any clashes are a result of improperly configured software.  Debugging is per-issue and no general fix is available.  All operating systems properly using the network protocol will not have any problems.  Configuration becomes most complex when setting up drag and drop file sharing among different operating systems, but it can be done.  For example, a Windows user can drag and drop files from a Linux computer's network share.  There is some complexity to this configuration, but it can be done.

15.  Call your local internet service provider.  Tell them you need internet access.  Pay the fee for whatever level of service you require.  Aquire whatever hardware is needed to connect to the service provider given the level of service you have purchased.  Use internet.
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