crosstab in sql?

Posted on 2002-07-11
Last Modified: 2008-05-23
I have this crosstab query in Access 2000, is it possible to duplicate a crosstab in SQL with a stored procedure?


TRANSFORM Sum(view3.TotalCount) AS SumOfTotalCount
SELECT view3.MakeID, view3.ModelID, Sum(view3.TotalCount) AS Total
FROM view3
GROUP BY view3.MakeID, view3.ModelID
ORDER BY view3.MakeID, view3.ModelID
PIVOT view3.Type;

Question by:ptran2000
LVL 75

Expert Comment

by:Anthony Perkins
ID: 7146493
There was an excellent article on this in the September or October 2001 issue of (what used to be) VBPJ (now VSM)

Here is a summary:
Upsize Jet Crosstab Queries
Using Jet crosstabs is a good alternative to PivotTables and data cubes—but SQL Server lacks the operators necessary to generate them. Discover how to migrate your crosstab queries to SQL Server so you can deliver summary data to your users quickly.

Unfortunately, if you do not have a hard copy you may need Premier Membership to read it from archives.  I used to have a (free) link to it, but I believe that has been disabled.


Expert Comment

ID: 7146579
Here's the TSQL that will duplicate your result (assuming type is an integer field):

select view3.MakeID, view3.ModelID
Sum(Case When Type = 1 Then view3.TotalCount Else 0 End) Type1,
Sum(Case When Type = 2 Then view3.TotalCount Else 0 End) Type2,
Sum(Case When Type = 3 Then view3.TotalCount Else 0 End)Type3,
Sum(Case When Type = 4 Then view3.TotalCount Else 0 End) Type4
-- More lines go here for however many types are possible
From View3
Group By

The only thing is the columns aren't dynamically built for all possible types. You need to find out all possible values for the type field
(Select Distinct Type From View3)
And then write a

Sum(Case When Type = # Then View3.TotalCount Else 0 End) Type#

line for each possible value. This generates the columns.  Now if a new type ever comes about, you'll have to add a new line in the select.  All this can be geneated dynamically; I have seen some code to do that, but it's usually overkill unless you anticipate new types to be generated frequently . . . .

Expert Comment

ID: 7146595
Oops, I left out the group by fields. Here's the statement:

select view3.MakeID, view3.ModelID
Sum(Case When Type = 1 Then view3.TotalCount Else 0 End) Type1,
Sum(Case When Type = 2 Then view3.TotalCount Else 0 End) Type2,
Sum(Case When Type = 3 Then view3.TotalCount Else 0 End)Type3,
Sum(Case When Type = 4 Then view3.TotalCount Else 0 End) Type4
-- More lines go here for however many types are possible
From View3
Group By view3.MakeID, view3.ModelID
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Accepted Solution

curtis591 earned 50 total points
ID: 7146612
Set the parameter to this stored procedure and it will do it for you automatically.

CREATE procedure sp_CrossTab
     @tablename               varchar(255),     -- Table/View on which to perform the cross tab query.
     @crosscolumn          varchar(255),     -- Attribute to be used as columns in the cross tab.
     @crossrow               varchar(255),     -- Attribute to be used as rows in the cross tab.
     @crossvalue               varchar(255)     -- Attribute to be used as value in the cross tab.

-- Work variables
     @sql                    varchar(8000),     -- Hold the dynamically created sql statement
     @colname               varchar(255),     -- The current column when building sql statement
     @i                         smallint,          -- know when we reached the last column (@i = @cols)
     @cols                    smallint,          -- Number of columns
     @longest_col          smallint,          -- the len() of the widest column
     @CrLf                    char(2)
-- Constants
     @max_cols_in_table     smallint,
     @max_col_name_len     smallint,
     @max_statement_len     smallint,
--     @sql7                    bit,               -- 1 when version 7, 0 otherwise.
     @err_severity          int

set nocount on

set @max_cols_in_table     = 255
set @max_statement_len     = 8000
set @max_col_name_len     = 128
set @err_severity          = 11
set @CrLf = char(13) + char(10)

-- Check inputs
if @tablename is null or @crosscolumn is null or @crossrow is null or @crossvalue is null begin
     raiserror ('Missing parameter(s)!',@err_severity,1)
     return 0

-- Check for existence of the table.
if (not exists(select * from sysobjects where name like @tablename))begin
     raiserror ('Table/View for crosstab not found!',@err_severity,1)
     return 0

-- Don't check for columns because we may actually get an expression as the column name

-- prepare for future feature of checking database version to validate
-- inputs. Default to version 7
--set @sql7 = 1
--if (patindex('%SQL Server  7.%',@@version) = 0) begin
--     set @sql7 = 0

-- Extract all values from the rows of the attribute
-- we want to use to create the cross column. This table
-- will contain one row for each column in the crosstab.
create table #crosscol (crosscolumn varchar(255))
set @sql =     ' insert #crosscol Select Distinct ' + @crosscolumn +
               ' From ' + @tablename --+
               --' Group By ' + @crosscolumn
--print @sql
exec (@sql)
set @cols = @@rowcount

if @cols > @max_cols_in_table begin
     raiserror ('Exceeded maximum number of columns in Cross-tab',@err_severity,1)
     return 0
else begin
     if @cols = 0 begin
          raiserror ('Could not find values to use for columns in Cross-tab',@err_severity,1)
          return 0
     else begin
          -- Check if any of the data is too long to make it a name of a column
          select @longest_col = max(len(convert(varchar(129),crosscolumn)))
          from #crosscol

          if @longest_col > @max_col_name_len begin
               raiserror ('Value for column name exceeds legal length of column names',@err_severity,1)
               return 0
          else begin
               -- All Validations OK, start building the dynamic sql statement

               set @sql = ''
               -- Use tmp table rows to create the sql statement for the crosstab.
               -- each row in the table will be a column in the cross-tab
               set @sql = 'select isnull(convert(varchar(255), ' + @crossrow + '),''Undefined'') As '
                              + @crossrow + ', ' + @CrLf + space(4)

               --set @sql = 'select ' + @crossrow + ', ' + char(13)
               declare cross_sql cursor for
               select crosscolumn
               from #crosscol
               order by crosscolumn

               --print 'Sql cross statment: ' +  @sql

               open cross_sql
               fetch next from cross_sql into @colname
               -- Use "@i" to check for the last column. We need to input commas
               -- between columns, but not after the last column
               set @i = 0
               while @@FETCH_STATUS = 0 begin
                    set @i = @i + 1
                    set @colname = isnull(@colname,'Undefined')
                    set @crossvalue = isnull(@crossvalue, 0)

                    Set @sql = @sql  + '''' +  
                         convert(varchar(128), @colname) +
                         ''' = sum(case convert(varchar(128), ' + @crosscolumn + ')'
                              + char(13) + char(10) + space(8) +
                              ' when ''' + @colname + ''' then ' + @crossvalue + ' else 0 end) '

                    if @i < @cols
                         set @sql = @sql + ', ' + @CrLf + space(4)
                         set @sql = @sql + @CrLf

                    fetch next from cross_sql into @colname

               close cross_sql
               deallocate cross_sql

               set @sql = @sql + ' from ' + @tablename + ' Group By ' + @crossrow
               if len(@sql) >= @max_statement_len begin
                    raiserror ('Crosstab sql statement cannot exceed 7999 characters',@err_severity,1)
                    return 0

               exec (@sql)
               Select 'Sql' =  @sql
               set nocount off              
               return 1



Expert Comment

ID: 7147042
Yeah that's the dynamic version. Depends on how often you expect new attributes (in this case types) to be added. If the types are static, write you own pivot query and be done with it.  But if you anticipate new types occuring frequently use the dynamic code.  =)

Author Comment

ID: 7537699
I can't remember what happened to this question, but I figure your answer was the longest and probably most time consuming.


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