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help,  a custom random function

Posted on 2002-07-15
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Last Modified: 2010-04-04

type
  TIntArray: Array Of Integer;

function myRandom(Range:integer;AIntArray:TIntArray):integer;
begin
end;


i want to produce a random value , but the result can't

be a value in the AIntArray
0
Comment
Question by:escaper
  • 6
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  • +7
22 Comments
 
LVL 27

Expert Comment

by:kretzschmar
Comment Utility
just from head

function myRandom(Range:integer;AIntArray:TIntArray):integer;
var
  isOK : Boolean;
  i : integer;
begin
  isOK := True;
  repeat
    Result := Trunc(Random(Range))+1;
    for i := low(AIntArray) to high(AIntArray) do
      if AIntArray[i]=result then
        isOK := False;
  until isOK;
end;

meikl ;-)
0
 

Author Comment

by:escaper
Comment Utility
hi , Kretzschmar,thank you ,
but i think maybe your code is not high efficiency.
0
 
LVL 27

Accepted Solution

by:
kretzschmar earned 200 total points
Comment Utility
efficience was not the question,
but anyway,
only the check-loop can optimized like

instead of

   for i := low(AIntArray) to high(AIntArray) do
     if AIntArray[i]=result then
       isOK := False;
 
use
  i := low(AIntArray);
  while (isOk) and (i <= high(AIntArray) do
  begin
    if  AIntArray[i]=result then
      isOK := false;
    inc(i);
  end;

meikl ;-)
0
 
LVL 2

Expert Comment

by:bugroger
Comment Utility
hi,

 maybe this one is faster.

function myRandom2(Range : integer; AIntArray : TIntArray) : integer;
Const
 MaxInt = 32768; //for smallInt
var
 i           : integer;
 CheckArray  : array of boolean;

begin
  //init CheckArray
  SetLength(CheckArray, MaxInt);
  FillChar(CheckArray[0], MaxInt, 0);
  for i := 0 to High(AIntArray) do
   CheckArray[AIntArray[i]] := TRUE;

 repeat
  result := Random(Range +1);       // 0 <= X <= Range
  if (not CheckArray[Result]) then  // not in AIntArray
   Break;                           // then break
 until False;

 SetLength(CheckArray, 0);
end;

GL
 bug
0
 
LVL 1

Expert Comment

by:pede
Comment Utility
If it is possible for you to make sure AIntArray is sorted, you can do it much faster. Either with binary search (if the array if large) or just skipping when you know you are too far.

Or (again depending on the situation) make an array like BugRoger did, but pass this array to the function instead of a TIntArray.
0
 

Expert Comment

by:davidheffernan
Comment Utility
escaper now asks for the impossible!  he should accept the first answer!
0
 
LVL 1

Expert Comment

by:OryxConLara
Comment Utility
escaper--

kretz's answer is not bad, but it has a number of difficulties. First, you can't use low() and high() on an array, only on a range like [1..100]. The function myrandom has no way to know the size of the array from inspecting the array alone.

there are a couple of ways to deal with this, the best I think is to pass a 3rd argument, the array size.

then, I'd break out of the loop as soon as I found the newly generated random # (if found).

function myRandom( Range:integer;AIntArray:TIntArray; const size :integer):integer;
var
 isOK : Boolean;
 i : integer;
begin
 repeat
   Result := Trunc(Random(Range))+1;
   i := 1
   while    (i <= size)
        AND (AIntArray[i] <> Result)
         do
       inc(i);
 until i > size;
end;



0
 
LVL 27

Expert Comment

by:kretzschmar
Comment Utility
>First, you can't use low() and high() on an array
are you sure, OryxConLara?

i used it often on arrays (i.e low() results in 0)

meikl ;-)
0
 
LVL 1

Expert Comment

by:pede
Comment Utility
Actually, if AIntArray can contain a lot of numbers (like 10.000 or more) you could do like this (pseudo code):

Make an array with all the values NOT present in AIntArray (can be done with a linear approach).

Rnd := Random( Length(TheArrayWithValuesNotPresentInAIntArray) )

Result := TheArrayWithValuesNotPresentInAIntArray[ Rnd ];



If you want speed in all situations, then make a function that does either this, or one of the other suggestions, dynamically depending on the length of AIntArray
0
 
LVL 1

Expert Comment

by:pede
Comment Utility
Actually, if AIntArray can contain a lot of numbers (like 10.000 or more) you could do like this (pseudo code):

Make an array with all the values NOT present in AIntArray (can be done with a linear approach).

Rnd := Random( Length(TheArrayWithValuesNotPresentInAIntArray) )

Result := TheArrayWithValuesNotPresentInAIntArray[ Rnd ];



If you want speed in all situations, then make a function that does either this, or one of the other suggestions, dynamically depending on the length of AIntArray
0
 
LVL 45

Expert Comment

by:aikimark
Comment Utility
I think you might be able to get acceptable performance if you do one of the following:

1. replace the array with a TintList and use its built-in searching (and sorting) methods.

2. Order the items in the array and do an interpolation search for the value.  It is even faster than binary search.

3. Use some direct addressing or hashing of the values to start your search.  If you have a good algorithm, your multi-item hash sub-lists should be quite short.

4a. replace the array with a database table with a unique index.  Try to insert your new value into the table. If the insert succeeds, then you know it isn't in the table.

4b. replace the array with a database table with a unique index.  Search the table for your value.
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Author Comment

by:escaper
Comment Utility
hi ,everyone , i do think pede is a genius;

but i am still not very clear aikimark's suggests,

1.why i need sort?

your mean i need sort the AIntArray ?
if i sort it by A TintList(build it by myself? how?),
then how shoud i do ?

2.  "interpolation search " ? what is it?  how to realize it?

3. direct addressing?  sorry , i still don't know it,


infact , i want to random a data , and every time a random
it , it is marked as used, so next time , the result can't
be it.

pede : can you give me some code ?
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LVL 27

Expert Comment

by:kretzschmar
Comment Utility
all may have a fallback,

a optimal method depends on
the size of your array

this q is still answered

meikl ;-)
0
 
LVL 1

Expert Comment

by:pede
Comment Utility
I dont want the points, Meilk answered your original question. I just commented becuse I found it interesting.

Maybe you can use this:


var
Numbers : TList;

procedure TForm1.InitNumbers(StartNumber, EndNumber: integer);
var i     : integer;
begin
  if (Numbers <> nil) then FreeAndNil(Numbers);
  Numbers := TList.Create;
  Numbers.Capacity := (EndNumber-StartNumber)+1;
  for i:=StartNumber to EndNumber do
    Numbers.Add(pointer(i));
  Randomize;
end;

function TForm1.GetNumber(var Number: integer): boolean;
var Rnd : integer;
begin
  if (Numbers.Count = 0) then begin
    Result := FALSE;
  end else begin
    Rnd := Random(Numbers.Count);
    Number := integer(Numbers[Rnd]);
    Numbers.Delete(Rnd);
    Result := TRUE;
  end;
end;


EXAMPLE USE:

procedure TForm1.Button1Click(Sender: TObject);
var
  Num : integer;
begin
  InitNumbers(-10, 10);
  while (GetNumber(Num)) do
    Memo1.Lines.Add(inttostr(Num));
end;


TList uses a bit of memory so making your own simple TList would save some ram, if thats a concern. Then you could also fill in the values directly instead of having to call Add() every time.
0
 
LVL 45

Expert Comment

by:aikimark
Comment Utility
escaper,

You really need to rethink what you intend to do with this.  Random numbers and pseudo-random numbers CAN (and often do) repeat.  Preventing duplicated numbers removes the randomness from your numbers.

If you are going to add each number to the array, be aware that your performance will degrade as the size of the array increases.

Ordering the array allows the searching code to perform MUCH faster.  For example:
a) If using a binary search, the search only requires Log2(N) steps, where Log2 is the base2 log function and N is the number of items in your array.
b) If using an interpolation search (see "Delphi 3.0 Algorithms" or Delphi Informant articles by Rod Stephens for Delphi coding example) you use fewer steps than the binary search.  Since you have integer data you can apply a variation on numeric interpolation
((searchvalue - minvalue) / (maxvalue - minvalue)) * N
to look for your item.  If the array item found at that location is not equal to what you are searching for adjust either the minvalue or maxvalue, depending on whether the item is higher or lower, and repeat the search.

If your array values are limited to a specific range (0 to 10000 for example), then you can use your array to indicate that that number has been generated.  You could even use a huge bit structure or a large bit array to indicate that a number has been generated.  When a new number is generated, inspect the associated position in the array.  This is one example of a direct-access lookup.

Another example of direct lookup uses some hash algorithm to generate an address number for the item.  If your hash algorithm is good for your data, each list at the hash-address will be short and you can quickly determine if the number already exists.

If you want to minimize duplicated numbers, you should increase the range of generated numbers as much as possible.
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LVL 3

Expert Comment

by:LukA_YJK
Comment Utility
I'll say something... later... But bugroger has a point and aikimark is right of course...
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LVL 27

Expert Comment

by:kretzschmar
Comment Utility
whats going on?
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LVL 3

Expert Comment

by:LukA_YJK
Comment Utility
I liked bugroger's idea about logical array that contains data about what elements

are in the given array, because checking become much easier... But maybe you can

use standard SET structures for it, because it gets only 1 bit (!) for every

element ! Unfortunately, SET can get only byte size types as a base type, so you

can not write SET OF INTEGER (?)... But maybe we can use an array of SETs, for

example if your numbers are between 0..999:


function myRandom(Range:integer; AIntArray:TIntArray):integer;
type Tcent = set of [0..99];
  Tarr = array[0..9] of Tcent;
var
  tabu: Tarr;
  c: Tcent;
  i: integer;
begin
  // Fill tabu array
  for i := 0 to 9 do tabu[i] := [];
  // Maybe FillChar(tabu, SizeOf(tabu), 0);
  for i := 0 to High(AIntArray) do
    tabu[AIntArray[i] div 100] :=
    tabu[AIntArray[i] div 100] + [AIntArray[i] mod 100];
  // Now find a random number no from tabu
  repeat
    i := Trunc(Random(Range))+1;
  until not((i mod 100)in tabu[i div 100]);
  Result := i;
end;
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LVL 27

Expert Comment

by:kretzschmar
Comment Utility
anyway, it depends on the amount of entrys in the intarray

>I liked bugroger's idea about logical array that contains
>data about what elements

yes, would be the fastest on big amounts,
but also very memory-expensive

your code looks interested, LukA_YJK,
but i guess,
by a range up to a million,
it would be more complex

meikl ;-)
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LVL 45

Expert Comment

by:aikimark
Comment Utility
escaper,

You haven't participated in this discussion since 7/17/2002.  

Does this mean
1. one of us has solved or helped you solve your problem?
2. you have lost interest in the problem?
3. the problem was solved by some other means?
4. you are busy testing our code examples?

...or something else?

Your question sounded urgent, but your lack of recent participation indicates otherwise.
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Expert Comment

by:CleanupPing
Comment Utility
escaper:
This old question needs to be finalized -- accept an answer, split points, or get a refund.  For information on your options, please click here-> http:/help/closing.jsp#1
EXPERTS:
Post your closing recommendations!  No comment means you don't care.
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LVL 5

Expert Comment

by:Lukasz Lach
Comment Utility
escaper,
No comment has been added lately (18 days), so it's time to clean up this TA.
I will leave a recommendation in the Cleanup topic area for this question:

RECOMMENDATION: Award points to kretzschmar http:#7156333

Please leave any comments here within 7 days.

-- Please DO NOT accept this comment as an answer ! --

Thanks,

anAKiN
EE Cleanup Volunteer
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