This is a general question, but let's talk Java for the example.

Primitive types byte and short are signed. If I'm not too wrong, the sign bit is the leftmost.

Here's some code (in Java) with simple masking:

1  byte b = -100;
2  short s = -100;
3  System.out.println(b);
4  System.out.println(s);
5  System.out.println(b & 0xFF);
6  System.out.println(s & 0xFF);
7  System.out.println((byte)(b & 0xFF));
8  System.out.println((byte)(s & 0xFF));

Masking with all 8 bits 'on' for the byte value, means (I think) that line 5 should print -100. But it prints 156.

Line 6 prints 156, which is more or less expected since the sign bit is lost(?)

Lines 7 and 8 print -100, which means that somehow the short's sign bit was shifted to the right by 8 positions.

So, what exactly is going on with masking and casting? Why I don't get -100 from line 5 and why I get -100 from line 8?
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Commented:
For me a byte is an unsigned value. That means if the compiler allows to assign a value of -100, the byte should be 156 afterwards.
But the compiler should complain about your try assigning an signed value to an unsigne variable.
So I'm not surprised about line 5.
Line 6: The signed bit gets lost since it's the MSB of the higher byte (all bits of the higher byte are 1 before masking). You mask s with 0x00FF means the higher byte is lost.
Line 8 and 9 I don't understand.
If the result is casted to byte it must not have a sign in my opinion!
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