Proper use of const regarding member functions

When defining a member function one can use the const keyword in a nubmer of places. I would like to check on the subtleties of location.

If my method merely returns an integer (say a counter) then I could define it thus:

int GetCounter() {return fCounter;}

If I want to ensure that the function does no change the member variables in any way I can add const

int GetCounter() const {return fCounter;}

What I would like to find out about is what it means exactly to use the const keyword in the following three cases:

int GetCounter() const;
const int GetCounter() {return fCounter;}
const int GetCounter() const {return fCounter;}

Thanks
marknewlynAsked:
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Sys_ProgCommented:
int GetCounter() const;

Ths member function cannot modify any of the data members. It also cannot give a call to any of non-const member functions [compile time error results]
A const member function is safe to call with both const and non-const objects. Thus, you could think of it as the most
general form of a member function (and because of this, it is unfortunate that member functions do not automatically default to const). Any function that doesn’t modify member data should be declared as const, so it can be used with const objects.



const int GetCounter() {return fCounter;}

It returns a const integer.
For built-in types, it doesn’t matter whether you return by value as a const, so you should avoid confusing the client programmer and leave off the const when returning a built-in type by value. Returning by value as a const becomes important when you’re dealing with user-defined types. If a function returns a class object by value as a const, the return value of that function cannot be an lvalue (that is, it cannot be assigned to or otherwise modified).

const int GetCounter() const {return fCounter;}

Combine the above two explanations








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