Tree .... data structure in C++

Hi Experts,

     I am currently trying to understand the implementation of the tree structure. The following is a tree class and I have several questions about it :
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
class Tree
{   struct Node ;
    typedef string Type ;
    typedef list<Node*> List ;
    typedef List::iterator LIt ;
    List _nodes ;

  public :
    class Iterator ;     //line01, Q1
    Tree() ;
    Tree(const Tree&) ;
    Tree(const Type&) ;
    Tree(const Type&, const list<Tree*>&) ;
    ~Tree() ;
    Tree& operator=(const Tree& t) ;
    void clear() ;
    Iterator begin() ;
    Iterator end() ;
    friend class Iterator    //line02, Q1
    {  Tree* _tree ;
       LIt _lit ;
      public:
       Iterator() ;
       Iterator(const Iterator&) ;
       Iterator(Tree*, Node* = 0) ;
       Iterator(Tree*, LIt) ;
       void operator=(const Iterator& it) ;
       bool operator==(const Iterator& it) ;
       bool operator!=(const Iterator& it) ;
       Iterator& operator++() ;
       Iterator operator++(int) ;
       Type& operator*() const ;  // line03 ...Q2
       bool operator!() ;
       friend class Tree ;
    };
};
---------------------------------------------
  Q1: line01 and line02: It seems to me that the class "Iterator" were declared twice. The first time it was declared as an inner class; the second time it was declared as a friend class. This is a little bit wierd to me. Is that okay to declare something twice ? and is that okay to be an inner class and friend class at the same time ?

 Q2: line03: This is a more general question, not only in the tree structure. Sometimes I saw a declaration of a function looks like :"void fun1() const ;"  or "int fun2() const ;". What does the "const" mean here ???

   Thanks very much !

 meow......
LVL 1
meow00Asked:
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jkrCommented:
Q1: line01 is a 'foward declaration', i.e. you are telling the compiler that you are going to use a typename that is defined later

Q2: The 'const' keyword means that this funcion is not manipulating any members of the class it belongs to - from the docs:

C++ Specific

Declaring a member function with the const keyword specifies that the function is a "read-only" function that does not modify the object for which it is called.

To declare a constant member function, place the const keyword after the closing parenthesis of the argument list. The const keyword is required in both the declaration and the definition. A constant member function cannot modify any data members or call any member functions that aren't constant.

END C++ Specific

Example

// Example of a constant member function
class Date
{
public:
   Date( int mn, int dy, int yr );
   int getMonth() const;       // A read-only function
   void setMonth( int mn );    // A write function;
                               //    cannot be const
private:
   int month;
};

int Date::getMonth() const
{
   return month;        // Doesn't modify anything
}
void Date::setMonth( int mn )
{
   month = mn;          // Modifies data member
}
meow00Author Commented:
Thanks for the answer.... just have a short question about Q1.
The "Iterator class" was really used between line01 and line02. Then why we need the line01 for forward declaration ? can we get rid of it ? Thanks.

meow....
jkrCommented:
If you'd move

    Iterator begin() ;
    Iterator end() ;

past the definition of 'Iterator', you can get rid of the fwd. declaration...

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