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Is there a copyright ASCII char?

Posted on 2004-03-26
Medium Priority
Last Modified: 2008-03-17
I just need to get a coyright character (the little c in the circle) - i saw some tables for html people and it said slot 169 was a copyright character in the extended ASCII table, but this is not so when I print that char to screen.

Is there no copyright character?

Question by:ragin_cajun
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LVL 17

Expert Comment

ID: 10689759
LVL 17

Expert Comment

ID: 10689765
There is no ASCII copyright character
LVL 17

Expert Comment

ID: 10689781
The solution may be using Unicode
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LVL 86

Expert Comment

ID: 10689792
© is ASCII character 0xa9 (dec 169, ALT+NUM:  0169)

Author Comment

ID: 10689921
I saw some tables that said 169 was the copyright character but I attempt:

cout << (char)169;

and I get a 'not' sign - not a copyright sign.. what am I missing jkr?
LVL 86

Expert Comment

ID: 10690023
>>what am I missing

The correct codepage?

Author Comment

ID: 10690062
I don't follow - the correct codepage?
LVL 23

Expert Comment

ID: 10690308
> I don't follow - the correct codepage?

The ASCII standard character set defines the 7-bit characters with values 0 - 127.
However, if we consider char to be unsigned rather than signed 8-bit quantities,
then there are an additional 128 values avaliable: 128-255.  Computer manufacturers
leveraged this range to encode the glyphs for regional and special characters.  
Unfortunately, 256 values is still insufficient to encode all the glyphs used by all the
western languages, so regional encoding tables were created.  These regional encodings
(code pages) provide the glyphs for the predominant characters used in that language
or region.

In the United States, we usually use Code Page 1252 (also known as Windows Latin I),
which has the copyright character at location 169.  Another [older] Code Page often
used in the United States is Code Page 437, which was the character set burned into
the ROM BIOS of US IBM compatible computers since the early 1980s.  Code Page 437
does not encode the copyright character.  As you have found, it contains the reversed
logical not character at that location.  CP 437 uses most of the high 128 characters to
encode mathematical symbols and line and box drawing characters for text-mode
windowing systems.


Author Comment

ID: 10690644
thanks for that information brettmjohnson - I see what you mean. Is there any way I can switch from the 437 table to the 1252 - I'm not sure why this computer would be using 437 instead of 1252..
LVL 14

Accepted Solution

wayside earned 120 total points
ID: 10690692
You can use (c) in place of the 0xA9 copyright character. Actually, IIRC the (c) isn't required at all, just the word "Copyright" . And works creates after 1/1/1978 are copyright by definition and don't need an explicit statement.

Check out this site: http://www.copyright.gov/circs/circ1.html#fnv It says in part

"Form of Notice for Visually Perceptible Copies
The notice for visually perceptible copies should contain all the following three elements:

1. The symbol © (the letter C in a circle), or the word "Copyright," or the abbreviation "Copr."; and

2. The year of first publication of the work. In the case of compilations or derivative works incorporating previously published material, the year date of first publication of the compilation or derivative work is sufficient. The year date may be omitted where a pictorial, graphic, or sculptural work, with accompanying textual matter, if any, is reproduced in or on greeting cards, postcards, stationery, jewelry, dolls, toys, or any useful article; and

3. The name of the owner of copyright in the work, or an abbreviation by which the name can be recognized, or a generally known alternative designation of the owner.

This is for the USA, which I assume from your handle that's where you are.

The Windows cmd shell apparently doesn't use code page 1252, which is why 0xA9 doesn't show up correctly. If you captured your output to a file and looked at it in wordpad or some other editor that uses the current code pages, you will see the right character.

Author Comment

ID: 10691657
yeah wayside you're right - just printing char 169 to a txt file does indeed print a copyright symbol - weird it's different in console mode - thanks so much for the info as well as my other options on displaying a copyright symbol

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