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HARD AND URGENT: XP login using Custom authentication

Posted on 2004-04-01
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Last Modified: 2013-12-04
Hey,
   Im writing code to allow users to login to Windows XP using their cell phone. My problem is that once I have completed my user credential verification (using certificates on the cell phone) I need to log the user into XP. I want to log the username 'x' into the same user account he would normally have loged into by typing his password in.
   However in my cell phone login I do not have the password(not safe to store them on cellphones). Is there anyway to tell XP to allow user x to log into his account without knowing his password. I need this authentication scheme to exists side by side with the normal user login.
   Thanks
   Mick
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Question by:AruneshGupta
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by:trywaredk
ID: 10731308
1. What happens if your cell phone user tries to authenticate without the password saved on the cell phone?
2. Does it prompt for manually typing the password?
3. What kind of software are you using on the cell phone?

Many Regards
Jorgen Malmgren
IT-Supervisor
Denmark

:o) Your brain is like a parachute. It works best when it's open
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Author Comment

by:AruneshGupta
ID: 10731331

The cell phone uses blue tooth to communicate with my custom GINA, which launches a thread waiting for bluetooth connections.

The problem is - Once I have talked to the cell phone and completed "MY" authentication
All I have is the username.

Now how do I login the user with just the username.

The MS_10V - defualt Microsft login interface - needs a password,
and if I were to write a custom authentication package,
I believe it would wrap MS_10V anyway, meaning I wouuld still need a password!

How do I tell windows that my custom authentication is enough, and it should login the user (without removing the normal authentication mechanism altogether).
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by:trywaredk
ID: 10731415
You don't

Maybe make a surrogate user (2 user accounts)
1. Normal user with password
2. Extra user without password, and IMPORTANT with limited permissions, ie. only member of Guest Group, and maybe limited read NTFS-permissions on the normal users home drive, but that's a great risk !!!

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Author Comment

by:AruneshGupta
ID: 10731434

Nah - This ia a big research project at Carnegie Mellon.

The User logging in using the cell phone must map exactly to the account he would have logged into manually - i.e. 100% transparency is required.
And this must happen w/o the password.

Any clue ?

Windows Claims this should be possible -using cutom authentication of some sort.
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by:trywaredk
ID: 10731897
That new to me, and I found these ...

Plugging Custom Security into Windows 2000
http://www.developer.com/tech/article.php/10923_629311_1

Enhancing the Security of a Windows CE Device
http://msdn.microsoft.com/library/default.asp?url=/library/en-us/dnce30/html/winsecurity.asp




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Author Comment

by:AruneshGupta
ID: 10732284

So -
Either using SSPI (2nd link)

Or more likely - LSA authentication as explained in msdn, wrapped by a custom authentication package of some sort
is it possible to log a user into XP w/o their password - since tha uthentication package is mine ?
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by:Droby10
ID: 10732934
your statements concerning msv1_0 are correct.  an easy out might be to consider using the schannel authentication package rather than msv1_0 all together.  i'm not big on crypto stuff, but i'm under the impression that schannel serves as an alternate internal authentication package (much like kerberos and msv1_0), that is in essence a certificate-based authentication provider (as well as a crypto provider).

if you wrap msv1_0, you'll be forced to approach this one of two general ways.

1) store the passwords accessible to your authentication provider (to be passed onto msv1_0).  this posses a pretty obvious risk.  but you can lock down the storage similar to sam.  to maintain synchronization, you'll probably have to implement a password filter that acts as a capture and update mechanism.  all in all, this sounds to me like a duct tape and bubble gum solution - but it wouldn't be the first time.

2) you can use the certificate as a key, encrypting the full credential data (username and password).  requires the user to either store it on their phone -or- enter it in.  left hand says it's not accessible enough or puts the client at risk, right hand says it's the simplest solution to make use of tertiary credentials without compromising the authentication subsystems.

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Author Comment

by:AruneshGupta
ID: 10735830
1) Can Schannel be used for local authentication - i.e. to log into the local machine (LSA authentication)
2) Does it also allow normal username/password login ?
    Since I doubt it could co-exist with the msv1_0 package - where both allow you to log into a singlke account through different schemes. (Can I maybe use a custom GINA to chose which authentication package is invoked ? They each have their own authentication schemes but can log you into the same account)
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Author Comment

by:AruneshGupta
ID: 10735997
"If you are supporting a system that defines a new type of logon procedure, such as retinal scanning or voice recognition, you must create a custom authentication package to analyze the new logon data and determine whether to accept the user's credentials."
     -  MSDN

You would think once Ive determined to accept them, I can log the user in, w/o a password =/.

Is there any way to log them in w/o the password - maybe even some automatic login hack or a system wide password?.
Im writing a custom Gina and authentication package - so i do have a lot of freedom in what I can do .
(e.g. If there was a system wide password for all accounts, along with the original password, I could use it to log users in, and my custom GINA could block its use in non bluetooth login attempts)
Just that the original text login must be retained, and everything transaprent to the user.
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by:trywaredk
ID: 10736095
Well it's a great security risk, but you could consider setting a blank password, and let your custom Gina prompt for a password if the user isn't using the cell phone.

You could create a software solutions (database) that enables the same things as w2k password settings, and let your custom gina  access this solution.

But if you choose that, remember to set up auditing, and follow up with a strong environment for checking for virus/spyware/trojans/backdoors and other malware.
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by:trywaredk
ID: 10736099
Implement a User Based Custom Shell (Windows 2000/XP)
http://www.winguides.com/registry/display.php/849/

Replacing the Microsoft Graphical Identification and Authentication DLL (MSGINA.DLL)
http://www.microsoft.com/windows2000/docs/msgina.doc
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by:trywaredk
ID: 10736104
Microsoft has released a tool to verify the installation of Windows 2000 hotfixes.
http://www.jsiinc.com/SUBG/TIP3300/rh3333.htm

Microsoft Security Configuration Manager for Windows NT 4.0
http://www.microsoft.com/ntserver/techresources/security/securconfig.asp
http://www.microsoft.com/ntserver/docs/scm-nt4.doc

About Windows Update (SUS)
http://v4.windowsupdate.microsoft.com/en/about.asp

Download and install Microsofts automatic update server (also known as SUS)
http://www.microsoft.com/windows2000/downloads/recommended/susclient/default.asp

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by:trywaredk
ID: 10736108
If you want to secure your company's workstations in the future, consider to purchase OfficeScan:
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Review of the best antivirus solutions:
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0
 
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Expert Comment

by:trywaredk
ID: 10736110
Getting a personal Firewall
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0
 
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by:trywaredk
ID: 10736113
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by:trywaredk
ID: 10736121
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by:trywaredk
ID: 10736125
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Expert Comment

by:trywaredk
ID: 10736129
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http://support.microsoft.com/default.aspx?scid=kb;en-us;143241

Downloading and Using the Security Configuration Manager Tool:
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Stress Tools to Test Your Web Server:
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WebCast: Using the Microsoft Security Tool Kit to Get and Stay Secure
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Microsoft Baseline Security Analyzer
http://www.microsoft.com/technet/treeview/default.asp?url=/technet/security/tools/Tools/MBSAhome.asp

Maximum Windows 2000 Security
http://www.bookpool.com/.x/rmpdj26gor/sm/0672319659
0
 
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by:trywaredk
ID: 10736154
Even if you apply the above urls to secure your password free logon for Cell Phones, I will warn you to do it.

I still think it's a great security risk, to Well it's a great security risk

Remember to set up auditing


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Expert Comment

by:trywaredk
ID: 10736161
Enable and Apply Security Auditing in Windows 2000
http://support.microsoft.com/default.aspx?scid=kb;en-us;300549

HOWTO: Enabling Local Auditing Policies on Windows 2000
http://support.microsoft.com/default.aspx?scid=kb;en-us;252412

HOW TO: Enable and Apply Security Auditing in Windows 2000 Server and Windows 2000 Professional:
http://support.microsoft.com/default.aspx?scid=kb;en-us;Q300549&sd=tech

Windows 2000 Server Security Guidelines - Audit acconts
http://www.colorado.edu/its/windows2000/adminguide/w2ksecguidelines.html#localpolicy

EMCO EventLog Audit collects the eventlog from the computers on the LAN, to a database
http://www.1000files.com/Utilities/Network/EMCO_EventLog_Audit_6132_Review.html

Cybersafe Centrax Log Analyst Named Essential Microsoft Windows 2000 Security Utility
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Event Log View EVT - analysis tool for rapid search through 64 archived logs
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Sentry II enables you to manage and monitor your Windows NT/2000/XP/2003 event logs.
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Proactively Monitor, Alert and Recover critical applications, servers and infrastructure equipment
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Expert Comment

by:Droby10
ID: 10737998
"1) Can Schannel be used for local authentication - i.e. to log into the local machine (LSA authentication)"

schannel is listed as one of the internal authentication packages per the msdn - and the description leads me to believe it's ideal for device to device authentication per certificates; so i would think this would be ideal.  i don't have any experience with it, so i threw it in as a possibility.  perhaps someone else here can provide better insight into the authenication functions it provides (which should be standard to any authentication package).  i think the real issue is going to be documentation on the credential field structure, which afaik is undocumented.

"2) Does it also allow normal username/password login ?"

yes, it would.  this is where the whole layered concept of authentication plays a role.  a call to LsaLogonUser accepts a package identifier.  for normal logins you simply pass the obtained package identifier for MSV1_0 or LSA (see LsaLookupAuthenticationPackage).  for your mobile login, you would pass the alternative identifier for your custom package.

"You would think once Ive determined to accept them, I can log the user in, w/o a password =/."

herein lies the problem, only internal authentication packages can provide you with a valid luid.  custom packages can only exist to wrap them -or- act as a subauthentication package providing a greater level of granularity.  you will still need a predefined system set of credentials only accessible to those system based packages.

"Is there any way to log them in w/o the password - maybe even some automatic login hack or a system wide password?."

you can use a static system password.  but the risks are obvious in that approach.  would this kind of hack be supportive of dual login capabilities?  or does it serve to compromise one at the expense of the other?

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Author Comment

by:AruneshGupta
ID: 10744623
1 ) What is a static system password - how does it work and how can it be set ?

2) Explain
"Well it's a great security risk, but you could consider setting a blank password, and let your custom Gina prompt for a password if the user isn't using the cell phone.

You could create a software solutions (database) that enables the same things as w2k password settings, and let your custom gina  access this solution.

But if you choose that, remember to set up auditing, and follow up with a strong environment for checking for virus/spyware/trojans/backdoors and other malware."

the blank password would mean the cell phone would work fine - but i need the nomal user login to work sisde by side too - meaning he needs to have a valid password that he can type at the terminal to login, and this must co-exist with the cell phone login.
Can you explain the Win2k idea more clearly, or p[oint me to documentation?  how long do you think itll take ?
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Expert Comment

by:trywaredk
ID: 10747488
1) It was DROBY10 comment, but "static" means the same password forever. You can't do it for one user without creating a special Organisational Unit in Active Directory, put the cell phone users there and create a Group POlicy that allows, that passwords does'nt have to be changed.

Domain Security Policy in Windows 2000
http://support.microsoft.com/default.aspx?scid=kb;EN-US;221930

2) I don't have any documentation, because you are the first one doing that:
Setup a blank password, means that a user can set the password to nothing, and do a logon without prompting for a password. Follow the OU and GPO from 1)

Then customize your Gina to run a special program, that you have to write yourself. It does'nt exist. At the end of your own program (if password is validated) then run the custom gina, as you commented on 04/01/2004 11:04PM CEST
This special program of yours, should do the following:
1. Prompt for password validation and/or shift of password
2. Shut down the computer if a valid password is'nt supplied
3. Store a valid password in an encrypted file or database
4. Only start the custom GINA if the password is valid.

I can't tell you how long it will take, but you definitely needs programming skills and a compiler (to get the stored password encrypted.

http://www.hiddensoft.com/autoit3/


0
 

Author Comment

by:AruneshGupta
ID: 10758147
So if I understand right:

I can set the password to be blank - and use this to do the Cell Phone login.

And on the side keep track of what the user would like their normal manual keyboard login password to be, and check for correctness of this using my Custom Gina, before logging them in with the blank password too?

Is this right ? Is this the best way of doing it ? Any pointers/tips as to how to safely store the passwords, and keep them up to date allowing changes etc. ?

Also I want to double check if the following is true:
"only internal authentication packages can provide you with a valid luid.  custom packages can only exist to wrap them -or- act as a subauthentication package providing a greater level of granularity. "

Implying there is no way to tell Windows that - Take custom authentication package X - let it do authentication - and when it says it is valid, then give me the corresponding Luid, without any password.
In which case information for the above proposal would be neccessary.
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Expert Comment

by:trywaredk
ID: 10758523
>"I can set the password to be blank - and use this to do the Cell Phone login"
Yes - the cell phone does'nt have your customized gina

>"And on the side keep track of what the user would like their normal manual keyboard login password to be, and check for correctness of this using my Custom Gina, before logging them in with the blank password too"

No - they haven't got any password in Active Directory (because of the cell phone), so they can login on their workstation without a login, but after that they only gets your customized gina, prompting them for a password, and if wrong rebooting the workstation.

>"Any pointers/tips as to how to safely store the passwords, and keep them up to date allowing changes etc."
As told before, you needs programming skills and a compiler (to get the stored password encrypted). There's a free compiler at http://www.hiddensoft.com/autoit3

Supply the compiled (binary) password-file (database) with encryption
HOW TO: Encrypt Data Using EFS in Windows 2000
http://support.microsoft.com/default.aspx?scid=kb;en-us;230520

Best Practices for the Encrypting File System
http://support.microsoft.com/default.aspx?scid=kb;EN-US;223316

If you're a domain administrator - read HOW TO: Configure a Domain EFS Recovery Policy in Windows 2000
http://support.microsoft.com/default.aspx?scid=kb;en-us;313365

If you're a "home user" - read Methods for Recovering Encrypted Data Files
http://support.microsoft.com/default.aspx?scid=kb;en-us;255742
http://support.microsoft.com/?kbid=290260

HOW TO: Back Up the Recovery Agent Encrypting File System Private Key in Windows 2000
http://support.microsoft.com/default.aspx?scid=http://support.microsoft.com:80/support/kb/articles/q241/2/01.asp&NoWebContent=1



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Author Comment

by:AruneshGupta
ID: 10762044
Also I want to double check if the following is true:
"only internal authentication packages can provide you with a valid luid.  custom packages can only exist to wrap them -or- act as a subauthentication package providing a greater level of granularity. "

Implying there is no way to tell Windows that - Take custom authentication package X - let it do authentication - and when it says it is valid, then give me the corresponding Luid, without any password
0
 

Author Comment

by:AruneshGupta
ID: 10762836
Are there any hacks I can use to allow a user to login w/o knowing his password?

Like by accessing the SamAccountName and its information ?

OR is there a way once I know the username
I an dynamically edit the registry to autoLogin this user w/o his password
And have it do it this time itself w/o rebooting ?
(seems farfecched - esp since it needs to work on a computer that is a part of a domain)

Any ideas would be well  appreciated - this problem has turned out to be insanely hard for something windows should be providing with ease and its claims of login support for new devices =/
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Expert Comment

by:Droby10
ID: 10763086
okay, regarding the recent questions.  subathentication for 2k/2k3 works differently than nt authentication by actually passing the sam data to the respective exported function (principal as well as password data).  the problem i foresee with this is that subauthentication works by modifying existing sam fields rather than extending/extending them.  thus if you were to change the lmhash, the user would be able to login locally and via phone, but might not necessarily be authenticated for network shares (assuming lan manager is used).  and vice versa, changing the nt hash to form fit your certificate data would prevent the user from logging on locally.  i'll keep working on a concept for this that isn't "hackish" in nature.  there is one field that in theory could be used, but i've yet to test it.  within the ALL_USER_INFORMATION structure which contains the sam data there is a UNICODE_STRING holding privatedata for use by applications.  it's entirely possible that this field is normally empty and can be used for certificate validation.  however, it would not surprise me to find out that it's used for things like encrypted files or generic user structure critical to functionality.  it would just require extensive testing in variant environments since there's not much documentation on it.

for reference

http://msdn.microsoft.com/library/default.asp?url=/library/en-us/security/security/creating_subauthentication_packages.asp
http://msdn.microsoft.com/library/default.asp?url=/library/en-us/security/security/msv1_0subauthenticationroutine.asp
http://msdn.microsoft.com/library/default.asp?url=/library/en-us/security/security/user_all_information.asp
http://msdn.microsoft.com/library/default.asp?url=/library/en-us/vcsample98/html/vcsmpsubauthsample.asp



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Author Comment

by:AruneshGupta
ID: 10798542
Hey,

1)
     If after the user tries to login, and the my verification rturns true,
     Say I have the username and Password I want to login stored in a plaintext file (dont worry abt the security of this),
     Is there an easy way in my custom GINA, to log this username and password in ?
   
  Is there anyway I can change the variables storing this data, that goes into the MS1_V authentication package? Or a way I can capture the GINA input boxes and change them ? Whats the easiest way I cn login a given username and passwd ?

2)
   I plan to use the above, as you suggested, to store username and passwords in an encrypted file, and then i will fill in the password myself after I have authenticated a user.
   In such a case, where would I store the key I use for encrypting my username,password mapping files ? Does XP offer some key management that would make this an easy task ?

Thanks again!!
This time I think the problem will actually be solved =)
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Author Comment

by:AruneshGupta
ID: 10800269
Ill give 500 points for each of those 2 questions =)
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Author Comment

by:AruneshGupta
ID: 10800270
Ill give 500 points for each of those 2 questions =)
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Expert Comment

by:trywaredk
ID: 10800574
Sorry - I lead you on the wrong track. Forget about custom gina.

To solve your issue use a custom shell, not a custom gina.

Use an Alternative User Interface
http://www.winguides.com/registry/display.php/850/

It works for Win XP also.
0
 

Author Comment

by:AruneshGupta
ID: 10899142
I am writing a custom GINA.

After using a cell phone to authenticate, I want my GINA to lookup the authenticated usernames password from a local Encrypted file with username password mappings(since one cannot store password on a cell phone).

How can I use EFS to store these username-pasword mappings, cine at GINA bootup time there is no active user
and hence the private key cannot be associated with any user profile.

What sort of ky management would exist for this?

Thanks
0
 

Author Comment

by:AruneshGupta
ID: 10899181
Doesn't a sub-authentication package only run after local authentication is complete - meaning w/o a valid password it would not even run?

Does sub-authentication even have access to the plaintext user password, and/or have the password to edit/change it?

That is suppose I know username x has password y,
Can I use the sub-authentication package to fill in the password field for the user?
and hence if I know username x's password, use my sub-authentication package to fill in his/her password and then have LSA authentication succeed?
(w/o the user ever supplying the password)
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