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xor hex and decimal

Posted on 2004-04-01
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Last Modified: 2007-12-19
Hi there,

I need to write a small function that will xor a hex value with a decimal value.

can someone please help with a small example.

Thanks
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Question by:morees
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LVL 45

Expert Comment

by:sunnycoder
ID: 10738661
Hi morees,

hex or decimal does not matter as long as you use the xor operator correctly

x = 56 ^ 0xE4; is perfectly valid though a bit unintuitive

Sunnycoder
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Author Comment

by:morees
ID: 10738691
Thanks,

better explain this a bit more.

I need to read the char from a file, convert that char to hex an then xor it with an integer value read from a file.

My program boms out at the xor with invalid variant type conversion.
How can I cast the hex value to "1F" to 0x1F so that the xor will work.

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sunnycoder earned 50 total points
ID: 10738717
morees,

you can cast a char to an int .... I am a bit confused now

you read a char 'A' (hex 41 )

char first = 'A';

you can xor it with an int as such

first ^ 22 is perfectly valid and legal ... there is no need for any conversion here

Sunnycoder
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Expert Comment

by:rstaveley
ID: 10738791
> need to read the char from a file

Do you mean you have a text file with a text (ASCII) representation of a number in it?
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Author Comment

by:morees
ID: 10738855
the one file is a binary file that was xored with a key and the key file just contains the key.

the key file look like this
141592653589793238462643383279502884197169......

a byte at position x in the source file must be xored with the byte at position x in the key file.

that is what I want to do
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Expert Comment

by:rstaveley
ID: 10738888
The key file looks like ASCII.

> 141592653589793238462643383279502884197169...

Is the 2nd byte '4' as in 0x34?
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Author Comment

by:morees
ID: 10738935
i think it should be..
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Expert Comment

by:stefan73
ID: 10739067
Hi morees,
> the key file look like this
> 141592653589793238462643383279502884197169......

> a byte at position x in the source file must be xored with the byte at
> position x in the key file.

To understand you correctly: As the key is in hex-ascii the key file is twice as long as the encoded file, right?

For the hex->int conversion, you *could* use the strtol() function:

int hexbyte=strtol(hexstring,NULL,16);
(hexstring MUST be \0 at the third byte)

This won't be terribly efficient, though probably better by eons than a fscanf() solution. You could convert 4 bytes (or even 8 using strtoll) at once, but then you'll skid into endianess issues.

Recommendation: Use a lookup table. Here's a Perl program to create one:
my $i;
my @tab;
for $i (0 .. 0xff){
      my ($hi,$lo) = unpack("C2",sprintf "%02x",$i);
      my $arridx=($hi << 8) + $lo;
      $tab[$arridx]=$i;
      ($hi,$lo) = unpack("C2",sprintf "%02X",$i);
      $arridx=($hi << 8) + $lo;
      $tab[$arridx]=$i;
}

print "#define ERR -1\nshort lookup[65536]={";
for $i (0 .. 0xffff){
      print "\n\t" if ($i & 0xf) == 0;
      if(defined $tab[$i]){
            printf "0x%02x,",$tab[$i];
      } else {
            print  " ERR,";
      }
}
print "\n};\n";

The lookup logic is: "94" -> ASCII 0x3934 -> lookup[0x3934] -> 0x94
The nice side effect is that you'll have both upper & lower hex values and you can detect errors without major extra effort -> faaaast.

Cheers,
Stefan
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Expert Comment

by:stefan73
ID: 10739080
In case you ask "why is this table defined as short?": All 256 possible values of (unsigned) char are valid, so you need a larger data type to store the error condition.

Stefan
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Expert Comment

by:Mafalda
ID: 10751583
Do something like the following:

#include <fstream>
#include <iostream>
using std::fstream;
using std::ios_base;
using std::cout;
using std::endl;


...
// open binary file
fstream f("my file.bin", ios_base::binary | ios_base::in);

unsigned short decimal_val = 12;
while (!f.eof())
{
    char c;
    // read char
    f.read(&c, 1);
    // do what you like, xor the value with our decimal and print it
    cout << (c ^ decimal_val) << endl;  
}



Stefan73, you assume morees knows perl ? ....
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