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Public IP addresses (Usable vs. non-usable)

This is more a theory question than a problem.

We have a full T-1 line setup with SBC.  We also have our configuration sheet that tells us our block of static IP addresses, DNS servers, etc.  

My question is about the block of 50 static IP addresses.  Our router is assigned only one of these IP addresses.  If the other 49 static IP addresses are non-usuable what are they for?  The router can only be configured for one public IP address.  All traffice comes in through the one usable IP address and the router sends the traffic to our inside network (exchange, domain controller, etc).  How do you use the other 49 non-usable  public IP addresses?

I don't understand why we would have 50 static IP addresses if we can only use one of them.  I'm sure in my confusion I'm not asking the right questions.  I hope someone can shed some light on this for me.

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8/22/2022 - Mon