# convex hull and point in convex hull algorithms

given a vector<POINT> of points and another POINT i need to generate the convex hull of points and then determine point is inside or on the line of the convex hull. i have tried to implement grahams scan and then use the pnpoly algorithm from the comp.graphics faq but something is wrong. after finding the convex hull i use pnpoly. if pnpoly returns 1 the points is in the hull else if it is 0 it is possibly on the border so i go through every line possible line segment and check to see if the point is on the line. if it is i return true. i would prefer an algorithm that gives a definite answer to if the point is outside, inside, or on the border. for the ConvexHull algorithm i have attempted to implement Graham's Scan from CLR but I dont think I have done it correctly. I think my sorting may be off. i use sort() with

bool AngleCompare( POINT p1, POINT p2 )
{
p1.x -= p0ref.x;
p1.y -= p0ref.y;
p2.x -= p0ref.x;
p2.y -= p0ref.y;

//return CrossProd( p1, p2 ) > 0;
return atan2( (double) p1.y, p1.x ) < atan2( (double) p2.y, p2.x );
}

the algorithm says to sort the points in counterclockwise order around p0ref. i didnt know how to do this exactly so i searched online and round that it could be done based on the crossproduct but that didnt seem to work so i switched to using atan2 after translating p0ref ot the origin.

here is the rest of the code

bool Equal(double x, double y, double epsilon)
{
//PRECONDITION(epsilon >= 0.0);

// Get the exponent of the smaller of the two numbers (using the
// smaller of the two gives us a tighter epsilon value).
int exponent;
(void) frexp(fabs(x) < fabs(y) ? x : y, &exponent);

// Scale epsilon by the exponent.
double delta = ldexp(epsilon, exponent);

// If the difference between the numbers is smaller than the
// scaled epsilon we'll consider the numbers to be equal.
double difference = fabs(x - y);
bool equal = difference <= delta;

return equal;
}

int pnpoly(vector<POINT> vPoints, POINT pt)
{   int     i, j, c = 0;
for (i = 0, j = vPoints.size()-1; i < vPoints.size(); j = i++) {
if ((((vPoints[i].y<=pt.y) && (pt.y<vPoints[j].y)) || ((vPoints[j].y<=pt.y)
&& (pt.y<vPoints[i].y))) &&
(pt.x < (vPoints[j].x - vPoints[i].x) * (pt.y - vPoints[i].y) /
(vPoints[j].y - vPoints[i].y) + vPoints[i].x))
c = !c;     }
return c;
}

bool PointInConvexPoly( vector<POINT> vPoints, POINT ptThePoint )
{
int            i;
double      m, b, y;
bool      online;

if( pnpoly( vPoints, ptThePoint ) )
return true;
else
{
vPoints.push_back( vPoints[0] );

online = false;

for( i = 0; i < vPoints.size() - 1; ++i )
{
m = (vPoints[i + 1].y - vPoints[i].y) / (double) (vPoints[i + 1].x - vPoints[i].x);
b = vPoints[i].y - m * vPoints[i].x;

y = m * ptThePoint.x + b;

if( abs( y - ptThePoint.y ) < 1E-6 )
online = true;
}

if( online )
return true;
else
return false;
}
}

bool ConvexHull ( vector<POINT> vPoints, POINT ptThePoint )
{
int                        size, i, minYIndex;
POINT                  ptMinY;
stack<POINT>      theStack;
POINT                  p0, p1, p2;

size = (int) vPoints.size ();

for ( i = 0, minYIndex = 0; i < size; ++i )
{
if ( vPoints[i].y < vPoints[minYIndex].y || (vPoints[i].y == vPoints[minYIndex].y && vPoints[i].x < vPoints[minYIndex].x) )
minYIndex = i;
}

ptMinY = vPoints[minYIndex];
vPoints.erase ( vPoints.begin () + minYIndex );

p0ref = ptMinY;

sort ( vPoints.begin (), vPoints.end (), AngleCompare );

for( i = vPoints.size() - 1; i >= 1; --i )
{
if( Equal( atan2( (double) vPoints[i].y - p0ref.y, vPoints[i].x - p0ref.x ), atan2( (double) vPoints[i - 1].y - p0ref.y, vPoints[i - 1].x - p0ref.x ), 1E-6 ) )
{
if( sqrt( pow( vPoints[i].y - p0ref.y, 2) + pow( vPoints[i].x - p0ref.x, 2 ) ) > sqrt( pow( vPoints[i - 1].y - p0ref.y, 2) + pow( vPoints[i - 1].x - p0ref.x, 2 ) ) )
{
vPoints.erase( vPoints.begin() + (i - 1) );
++i;
}
else
vPoints.erase( vPoints.begin() + i );
}
}

for( i = 0; i < vPoints.size(); ++i )
cout << vPoints[i].x << ", " << vPoints[i].y << " " << atan2( (double) vPoints[i].y - p0ref.y, vPoints[i].x - p0ref.x ) << endl;

theStack.push (ptMinY);
theStack.push (vPoints[0]);
theStack.push (vPoints[1]);

for ( i = 2; i < vPoints.size(); ++i )
{
while( true )
{
p1 = theStack.top();
theStack.pop();
p0 = theStack.top();
theStack.push ( p1 );
p2 = vPoints[i];

p2.x -= p0.x;
p2.y -= p0.y;
p1.x -= p0.x;
p1.y -= p0.y;

if( CrossProd( p2, p1 ) < 0 )
break;
else
theStack.pop();
}

theStack.push( vPoints[i] );
}

vPoints.clear();

cout << "points in convex hull - ";

while( !theStack.empty() )
{
vPoints.push_back( p0 = theStack.top() );
cout << "( " << p0.x << ", " << p0.y << " ) ";
theStack.pop();
}

cout << endl;

return PointInConvexPoly( vPoints, ptThePoint );
}

int CrossProd( POINT p1, POINT p2 )
{
return p1.x * p2.y - p2.x - p1.y;
}

bool AngleCompare( POINT p1, POINT p2 )
{
p1.x -= p0ref.x;
p1.y -= p0ref.y;
p2.x -= p0ref.x;
p2.y -= p0ref.y;

//return CrossProd( p1, p2 ) > 0;
return atan2( (double) p1.y, p1.x ) < atan2( (double) p2.y, p2.x );
}
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Asked:
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Author Commented:
the other possible problem is with the part where the algorithm says while not making a left turn pop from the stack. i didnt know how to determine a left turn so i used google and found something that said a left turn occurrs if the cross product is < 0 that is the

if( CrossProd( p2, p1 ) < 0 )
break;
else
theStack.pop();
Author Commented:
i forgot

struct POINT
{
int      x, y;
};

and p0ref is a global

POINT      p0ref;
Commented:
First of all, IIRC, sort() requires a function that returns -1, 0 or 1, where 0 means 'equal', and + or -1 means 'larger' and 'smaller' respectively.  Your function seems to be returning a boolean.
- You've got a small error in your CrossProd there, should be p1.x * p2.y - p2.x * p1.y.
I haven't checked, but if you do it with arctangens, you may have problems around the X or Y axes.

Also, the problem with sorting is that you're sorting something that's in a circle, so you need to define an arbitrary direction where you 'open up' the circle, so to speak.  For example, your angle comparison could first check the X coordinates' signs against each other, and return +1 or -1 depending on that, and if they have the same sign (the angles are in the same hemisphere), then you check the angles against each other.  (Or maybe first check the signs of the Y coordinates also, and check the actual angles only when they're in the same quadrant.)
Author Commented:
according to msdn sort takes a function that returns a bool.

http://msdn.microsoft.com/library/default.asp?url=/library/en-us/vcstdlib/html/vclrfalgorithmsort.asp

how would i change AngleCompare to properly sort with CrossProd instead of using atan?
Commented:
Ah, yes.  I see.  That's different from the C sort() function, then.

Lessee, what I would do (off the top of my head, untested):

bool AngleCompare( POINT p1, POINT p2 )
{
p1.x -= p0ref.x;
p1.y -= p0ref.y;
p2.x -= p0ref.x;
p2.y -= p0ref.y;
if ((p1.x < 0) && (p2.x > 0)) {
return true;
}
if ((p1.x >= 0) && (p2.x =< 0)) {
return false;
}
return CrossProd( p1, p2 ) > 0;
}

This way you make sure that the angles you're comparing are always less than 180 degrees.
If you order the points in a circle, you have to mark a point on the circle as the start and endpoint, otherwise you don't get a stable ordering.

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Author Commented:
i object. i dont think what sneeuw_chan works. there are probably other problems in my algorithm but i dont know what so i need someone to point them out
Author Commented:
what does force accept mean? can i get a point refund or something?
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