How to develop jsp with tomcat 5.0.27?

Posted on 2004-09-16
Last Modified: 2010-10-05
Hi experts,

I'm experience in pure java programing but not JSP or Servlet.
Now, I want to develop a web by using JSP. I chose tomcat as the server.
I'm novice to tomcat although I ever used version 3.3 before, but never deeply understand how it works ;-)
I've downloaded tomcat-5.0.27 installer and installed on my computer, WinXp pro with JDK1.4.2, at D:\tomcat-5.0.27.
I've set these variables:


Then, I created a folder D:\Project\esp as my virtual directory for my webapp. So, my index.jsp should be placed here.
After that, I created a file at d:\tomcat-5.0.27\conf\Catalina\localhost\esp.xml with following stuff:

<Context path="/esp" docBase="D:\Project\esp" debug="0" reloadable="true"/>

Later, I created my web pages, one is D:\Project\esp\index.jsp, that linked with images and stylesheets.

Here is the structure

       |      +----*.gif,*.jpg

Finally, I restarted the server, via Monitor Tomcat, and access my web page with url http://localhost:8080/esp.
The page is loaded fine except images did not show in the page. Not only that, I've tested by create a page, test.jsp, at
the path I specified above and access it with url http://localhost:8080/esp/test/test.jsp . It shows me this error:

HTTP Status 404 - /test/test.jsp


type Status report

message /test/test.jsp

description The requested resource (/test/test.jsp) is not available.


Apache Tomcat/5.0.27

What I want to know are:

Did I miss something?
How can I access web pages and images inside sub-directory of web root?
What's the general process to write a webapp using JSP with tomcat?

I'm using Editplus as a JSP Editor.

G noon
Question by:gnoon
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LVL 35

Expert Comment

ID: 12073285
Don't set the classpath before you start tomcat...  Does that help any?


should set all the things it needs for you...  you shouldn't need to set anything (except JAVA_HOME)
LVL 35

Expert Comment

ID: 12073292
Also, instead of putting it in


cant you just edit server.xml in "conf"?  Add it after the test context...
LVL 16

Author Comment

ID: 12073477
Thank for rapid response.

Actually, I've set the classpath by right click 'My computer' --> 'Environment Variables' and did not use startup.bat to start tomcat (but through the tray icon instead). However, I try startup.bat without classpath setting but did not work ;-(

>cant you just edit server.xml in "conf"?  Add it after the test context...
I did not see any <context> element in the original file /conf/server.xml.

Expert Comment

ID: 12074382
Change the path of your Images something like this-

  String contextPath = request.getContextPath();
  String imagePath = contextPath + "/images";

Now you can access your images by doing this-
<TD class="tablelabel" width="58" valign="top" background="<%= imagePath%>/s_m.gif" nowrap>

I hope it works with you.
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Accepted Solution

ronan_40060 earned 500 total points
ID: 12075136
1>in conf/server.xml i included

<Context path="/Project"

for class path it shud be like  => C:\Program Files\Apache Software Foundation\Tomcat 5.0\webapps\ROOT\WEB-INF\classes

TOMCAT_HOME should refer to C:\Program Files\Apache Group\Tomcat 5.2.5\ and is used by the JDK to run tomcat.

Normally for the deployment of JSP

a>Copy your WAR file to the TOMCAT_HOME/webapps directory.

b>Add a new Context entry to the TOMCAT_HOME/conf/server.xml file, setting the values for the path and docBase to the name of your web application.
c>Restart Tomcat after completing these steps. .
on the browser
 Few notes
IN  TOMCAT_HOME/webapps directory, you will see a new directory matching the name of your WAR file. This is where your working web application now exists. When Tomcat starts it will extract all WAR files that have been recently placed into the TOMCAT_HOME/webapps directory.

 web.xml and  jsp will be inside the war file.

few good tutorials

1>   ****very good *********
only for JSP
a>You need to  create a folder name for example project in the webapps folder, place your jsp there  i.e <tomcat dir>/webapps/project
and restart tomcat and try
b>else you can download a preconfigured version of Tomcat step by step tutorials from
let me know how it goes
Good Luck
LVL 16

Author Comment

ID: 12080834
KarcOrigin, still the same. I print the imagePath out, and its value is '/esp/images'.

ronan_40060, let me try with your suggestion and thank for good tutorials.
LVL 16

Author Comment

ID: 12080862
A question, the following stuff is my conf/server.xml content. Where should I put the context, <Context path="/esp" docBase="D:\Project\esp" debug="0" reloadable="true"/>?

<!-- Example Server Configuration File -->
<!-- Note that component elements are nested corresponding to their
     parent-child relationships with each other -->

<!-- A "Server" is a singleton element that represents the entire JVM,
     which may contain one or more "Service" instances.  The Server
     listens for a shutdown command on the indicated port.

     Note:  A "Server" is not itself a "Container", so you may not
     define subcomponents such as "Valves" or "Loggers" at this level.

<Server port="8005" shutdown="SHUTDOWN" debug="0">

  <!-- Comment these entries out to disable JMX MBeans support -->
  <!-- You may also configure custom components (e.g. Valves/Realms) by
       including your own mbean-descriptor file(s), and setting the
       "descriptors" attribute to point to a ';' seperated list of paths
       (in the ClassLoader sense) of files to add to the default list.
       e.g. descriptors="/com/myfirm/mypackage/mbean-descriptor.xml"
  <Listener className="org.apache.catalina.mbeans.ServerLifecycleListener"
  <Listener className="org.apache.catalina.mbeans.GlobalResourcesLifecycleListener"

  <!-- Global JNDI resources -->

    <!-- Test entry for demonstration purposes -->
    <Environment name="simpleValue" type="java.lang.Integer" value="30"/>

    <!-- Editable user database that can also be used by
         UserDatabaseRealm to authenticate users -->
    <Resource name="UserDatabase" auth="Container"
       description="User database that can be updated and saved">
    <ResourceParams name="UserDatabase">


  <!-- A "Service" is a collection of one or more "Connectors" that share
       a single "Container" (and therefore the web applications visible
       within that Container).  Normally, that Container is an "Engine",
       but this is not required.

       Note:  A "Service" is not itself a "Container", so you may not
       define subcomponents such as "Valves" or "Loggers" at this level.

  <!-- Define the Tomcat Stand-Alone Service -->
  <Service name="Catalina">

    <!-- A "Connector" represents an endpoint by which requests are received
         and responses are returned.  Each Connector passes requests on to the
         associated "Container" (normally an Engine) for processing.

         By default, a non-SSL HTTP/1.1 Connector is established on port 8080.
         You can also enable an SSL HTTP/1.1 Connector on port 8443 by
         following the instructions below and uncommenting the second Connector
         entry.  SSL support requires the following steps (see the SSL Config
         HOWTO in the Tomcat 5 documentation bundle for more detailed
         * If your JDK version 1.3 or prior, download and install JSSE 1.0.2 or
           later, and put the JAR files into "$JAVA_HOME/jre/lib/ext".
         * Execute:
             %JAVA_HOME%\bin\keytool -genkey -alias tomcat -keyalg RSA (Windows)
             $JAVA_HOME/bin/keytool -genkey -alias tomcat -keyalg RSA  (Unix)
           with a password value of "changeit" for both the certificate and
           the keystore itself.

         By default, DNS lookups are enabled when a web application calls
         request.getRemoteHost().  This can have an adverse impact on
         performance, so you can disable it by setting the
         "enableLookups" attribute to "false".  When DNS lookups are disabled,
         request.getRemoteHost() will return the String version of the
         IP address of the remote client.

    <!-- Define a non-SSL Coyote HTTP/1.1 Connector on the port specified
         during installation  -->
port="8080"               maxThreads="150" minSpareThreads="25" maxSpareThreads="75"
               enableLookups="false" redirectPort="8443" acceptCount="100"
               debug="0" connectionTimeout="20000"
               disableUploadTimeout="true" />
    <!-- Note : To disable connection timeouts, set connectionTimeout value
     to 0 -->
      <!-- Note : To use gzip compression you could set the following properties :
                     noCompressionUserAgents="gozilla, traviata"

    <!-- Define a SSL Coyote HTTP/1.1 Connector on port 8443 -->
    <Connector port="8443"
               maxThreads="150" minSpareThreads="25" maxSpareThreads="75"
               enableLookups="false" disableUploadTimeout="true"
               acceptCount="100" debug="0" scheme="https" secure="true"
               clientAuth="false" sslProtocol="TLS" />

    <!-- Define a Coyote/JK2 AJP 1.3 Connector on port 8009 -->
    <Connector port="8009"
               enableLookups="false" redirectPort="8443" debug="0"
               protocol="AJP/1.3" />

    <!-- Define a Proxied HTTP/1.1 Connector on port 8082 -->
    <!-- See proxy documentation for more information about using this. -->
    <Connector port="8082"
               maxThreads="150" minSpareThreads="25" maxSpareThreads="75"
               acceptCount="100" debug="0" connectionTimeout="20000"
               proxyPort="80" disableUploadTimeout="true" />

    <!-- An Engine represents the entry point (within Catalina) that processes
         every request.  The Engine implementation for Tomcat stand alone
         analyzes the HTTP headers included with the request, and passes them
         on to the appropriate Host (virtual host). -->

    <!-- You should set jvmRoute to support load-balancing via JK/JK2 ie :
    <Engine name="Standalone" defaultHost="localhost" debug="0" jvmRoute="jvm1">        
    <!-- Define the top level container in our container hierarchy -->
    <Engine name="Catalina" defaultHost="localhost" debug="0">

      <!-- The request dumper valve dumps useful debugging information about
           the request headers and cookies that were received, and the response
           headers and cookies that were sent, for all requests received by
           this instance of Tomcat.  If you care only about requests to a
           particular virtual host, or a particular application, nest this
           element inside the corresponding <Host> or <Context> entry instead.

           For a similar mechanism that is portable to all Servlet 2.4
           containers, check out the "RequestDumperFilter" Filter in the
           example application (the source for this filter may be found in

           Request dumping is disabled by default.  Uncomment the following
           element to enable it. -->
      <Valve className="org.apache.catalina.valves.RequestDumperValve"/>

      <!-- Global logger unless overridden at lower levels -->
      <Logger className="org.apache.catalina.logger.FileLogger"
              prefix="catalina_log." suffix=".txt"

      <!-- Because this Realm is here, an instance will be shared globally -->

      <!-- This Realm uses the UserDatabase configured in the global JNDI
           resources under the key "UserDatabase".  Any edits
           that are performed against this UserDatabase are immediately
           available for use by the Realm.  -->
      <Realm className="org.apache.catalina.realm.UserDatabaseRealm"
                 debug="0" resourceName="UserDatabase"/>

      <!-- Comment out the old realm but leave here for now in case we
           need to go back quickly -->
      <Realm className="org.apache.catalina.realm.MemoryRealm" />

      <!-- Replace the above Realm with one of the following to get a Realm
           stored in a database and accessed via JDBC -->

      <Realm  className="org.apache.catalina.realm.JDBCRealm" debug="99"
         connectionName="test" connectionPassword="test"
              userTable="users" userNameCol="user_name" userCredCol="user_pass"
          userRoleTable="user_roles" roleNameCol="role_name" />

      <Realm  className="org.apache.catalina.realm.JDBCRealm" debug="99"
         connectionName="scott" connectionPassword="tiger"
              userTable="users" userNameCol="user_name" userCredCol="user_pass"
          userRoleTable="user_roles" roleNameCol="role_name" />

      <Realm  className="org.apache.catalina.realm.JDBCRealm" debug="99"
              userTable="users" userNameCol="user_name" userCredCol="user_pass"
          userRoleTable="user_roles" roleNameCol="role_name" />

      <!-- Define the default virtual host
           Note: XML Schema validation will not work with Xerces 2.2.
      <Host name="localhost" debug="0" appBase="webapps"
       unpackWARs="true" autoDeploy="true"
       xmlValidation="false" xmlNamespaceAware="false">

        <!-- Defines a cluster for this node,
             By defining this element, means that every manager will be changed.
             So when running a cluster, only make sure that you have webapps in there
             that need to be clustered and remove the other ones.
             A cluster has the following parameters:

             className = the fully qualified name of the cluster class

             name = a descriptive name for your cluster, can be anything

             debug = the debug level, higher means more output

             mcastAddr = the multicast address, has to be the same for all the nodes

             mcastPort = the multicast port, has to be the same for all the nodes

             mcastFrequency = the number of milliseconds in between sending a "I'm alive" heartbeat

             mcastDropTime = the number a milliseconds before a node is considered "dead" if no heartbeat is received

             tcpThreadCount = the number of threads to handle incoming replication requests, optimal would be the same amount of threads as nodes

             tcpListenAddress = the listen address (bind address) for TCP cluster request on this host,
                                in case of multiple ethernet cards.
                                auto means that address becomes

             tcpListenPort = the tcp listen port

             tcpSelectorTimeout = the timeout (ms) for the method in case the OS
                                  has a wakup bug in java.nio. Set to 0 for no timeout

             printToScreen = true means that managers will also print to std.out

             expireSessionsOnShutdown = true means that

             useDirtyFlag = true means that we only replicate a session after setAttribute,removeAttribute has been called.
                            false means to replicate the session after each request.
                            false means that replication would work for the following piece of code:
                            HashMap map = (HashMap)session.getAttribute("map");
             replicationMode = can be either 'pooled', 'synchronous' or 'asynchronous'.
                               * Pooled means that the replication happens using several sockets in a synchronous way. Ie, the data gets replicated, then the request return. This is the same as the 'synchronous' setting except it uses a pool of sockets, hence it is multithreaded. This is the fastest and safest configuration. To use this, also increase the nr of tcp threads that you have dealing with replication.
                               * Synchronous means that the thread that executes the request, is also the
                               thread the replicates the data to the other nodes, and will not return until all
                               nodes have received the information.
                               * Asynchronous means that there is a specific 'sender' thread for each cluster node,
                               so the request thread will queue the replication request into a "smart" queue,
                               and then return to the client.
                               The "smart" queue is a queue where when a session is added to the queue, and the same session
                               already exists in the queue from a previous request, that session will be replaced
                               in the queue instead of replicating two requests. This almost never happens, unless there is a
                               large network delay.
            When configuring for clustering, you also add in a valve to catch all the requests
            coming in, at the end of the request, the session may or may not be replicated.
            A session is replicated if and only if all the conditions are met:
            1. useDirtyFlag is true or setAttribute or removeAttribute has been called AND
            2. a session exists (has been created)
            3. the request is not trapped by the "filter" attribute

            The filter attribute is to filter out requests that could not modify the session,
            hence we don't replicate the session after the end of this request.
            The filter is negative, ie, anything you put in the filter, you mean to filter out,
            ie, no replication will be done on requests that match one of the filters.
            The filter attribute is delimited by ;, so you can't escape out ; even if you wanted to.

            filter=".*\.gif;.*\.js;" means that we will not replicate the session after requests with the URI
            ending with .gif and .js are intercepted.
        <Cluster className="org.apache.catalina.cluster.tcp.SimpleTcpCluster"




            <Valve className="org.apache.catalina.cluster.tcp.ReplicationValve"

        <!-- Normally, users must authenticate themselves to each web app
             individually.  Uncomment the following entry if you would like
             a user to be authenticated the first time they encounter a
             resource protected by a security constraint, and then have that
             user identity maintained across *all* web applications contained
             in this virtual host. -->
        <Valve className="org.apache.catalina.authenticator.SingleSignOn"

        <!-- Access log processes all requests for this virtual host.  By
             default, log files are created in the "logs" directory relative to
             $CATALINA_HOME.  If you wish, you can specify a different
             directory with the "directory" attribute.  Specify either a relative
             (to $CATALINA_HOME) or absolute path to the desired directory.
        <Valve className="org.apache.catalina.valves.AccessLogValve"
                 directory="logs"  prefix="localhost_access_log." suffix=".txt"
                 pattern="common" resolveHosts="false"/>

        <!-- Logger shared by all Contexts related to this virtual host.  By
             default (when using FileLogger), log files are created in the "logs"
             directory relative to $CATALINA_HOME.  If you wish, you can specify
             a different directory with the "directory" attribute.  Specify either a
             relative (to $CATALINA_HOME) or absolute path to the desired
        <Logger className="org.apache.catalina.logger.FileLogger"
                 directory="logs"  prefix="localhost_log." suffix=".txt"




LVL 16

Author Comment

ID: 12081826
Problem solved myself :)

Actually, it's case sensitive of sub-directory under web root, which I never know before. I've renamed folder from 'Images' to 'images' then it works and did not change any thing else.

However, I'll give a point to ronan_40060 for tutorial.

Expert Comment

ID: 12081854
Ooooh I was sooo near. Have a look at my previous comment once more.

  String contextPath = request.getContextPath();
  String imagePath = contextPath + "/images"; <------- See small I

:-) :-D

Nice that you got the solution.

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