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query about undeclared identifier and static variable

Posted on 2004-11-01
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Last Modified: 2008-02-01
Hello
        i have two simple queries

1.if i have an undeclared identifier in a program and i assign it any type say an int or a string,like this

avv="expert"; //declaration without type
void main()
{
  printf("%s",avv);
}

does the compiler check the type and assign it implicitly or is it dependant on the host processor?

the above code compiles and prints successfully.

2.If i have a static variable say static int a; declared in a header file say file.h

now if this header file is used in multiple source files,does each source file hold an exclusive copy of the static or is it just one copy,also is there a problem if i do the above?can i change the static variable in any source file and use it?

thanking you
elico
0
Question by:software_elico
    7 Comments
     
    LVL 5

    Expert Comment

    by:van_dy
    1)  the type assigned to avv is int.
         it is not changed, the address of "expert"
          is stored in avv. (you compiler must
           issue a warning about converting pointer to an integer).
           However the program outputs correct result becase:
              printf("%s" .... requires a pointer argument, the integer
            supplied , avv, is treated as pointer and the string stored
             at the memory address contained in avv is printed out successfully.

    2)  static variables are local to translation units. so various static variables introduced
          in the program due to inclusion of you header in various source files(translation units)
        will be different.

    hope this helps,
    van_dy
    0
     
    LVL 5

    Expert Comment

    by:van_dy
    Regarding 1)

         it is possible to lose information in such conversions.(like pointer to int)
    for example if the address of your string were beyond the value representable
    by an integer on your host, then the program wont print correctly.
    0
     

    Author Comment

    by:software_elico
    about query 1 iam clear thanks

    about 2:say i have a

    header file.h
    and declare

    static int a;

    1)do i have to initialize this variable?
    2)say i initialized it :
    static int a=10;

    and two source files
    file1.c  and file2.c are having file.h

    can i change the value of variable a in file1.c and if i can then do i have to use

    ::a to change it?

    thanks again



    0
     
    LVL 5

    Expert Comment

    by:van_dy
    >> do i have to initialize this variable?

    static variables are initialised to 0 by default.

    the scope of the static variable a in file1.c is restricted to that
    file itself, similarily the scope of the static variable a in file2.c is restricted
    to file2.c itself.  Yes you can change the value of a in file1.c as and when required

    consider

    file.h
    #include <stdio.h>
    static int a =  10;

    file1.c
    #include "file.h"

    int main()
    {
              int state  =  0;                // some variable which may change
            /* ...you can use 'a' here and change it as well without
              using ::a.     :: is used in c++ to refer to a variable
              that is in global scope. it is not a part of C.  Now if
              you have another block in main as follows ...*/

               printf("%d\n", a*10);
                     // perform some calculation
              if(state > 0){
                       int a = 5;   // this 'a' is local to this if() block, any change you do to a here will not effect static int a declred via file.h.
                       ......
              }

              a = 20;             // this will effect the static int a declared by file.h, we are back in the scope of previous declaration of a.
                   
    }

    Hope this helps,
    van_dy


    0
     

    Author Comment

    by:software_elico
    so basically its just one copy?but having different access privileges in different source files.


    0
     
    LVL 5

    Accepted Solution

    by:
    >>  so basically its just one copy?but having different access privileges in different source files.
    no, please consider the following,

    file.h
    #include <stdio.h>
    static int a =  10;


    file1.c
    #include "file.h"
    .....// rest of your file1.c


    file2.c
    #include "file.h"
    ..........// rest of your file2.c

    as i said earlier, the static int a in both the files (file1.c and file2.c) are 2 separate variables.
    they are two seperate storage locations. the only restriction is that the functions in file1.c are
    allowed to access only the 'a' which is in their scope and same holds for file2.c
    0
     

    Author Comment

    by:software_elico
    thanks
    0

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