• C

Bus Error with Unix

Good day all . . .

I have an error which is "Bus Error" when trying to run the executable file . . .

The following is the code for both the header file and the executable file . . .

Please help me out . . .

Thanks in advanced . . .

This is the header file:

/* Demo of dynamic data structures in C                      */

#include <stdio.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <ctype.h>

#define FALSE 0
#define NULL 0

typedef struct listelement{
    long     dataitem;
    struct listelement *link;
}listelement ;

void Menu (int *choice);
listelement * AddItem (listelement * listpointer, int data);
listelement * RemoveItem (listelement * listpointer);
void PrintQueue (listelement * listpointer);
void ClearQueue (listelement * listpointer);
int isEmpty(listelement * listpointer);

int isEmpty(listelement * listpointer)
      if(listpointer -> link == NULL)
            return 1;
            return 0;

listelement * AddItem (listelement * listpointer, int data) {

listelement * lp = listpointer;

    if (listpointer != NULL) {
      while (listpointer -> link != NULL)
          listpointer = listpointer -> link;
      listpointer -> link = (struct listelement  *) malloc (sizeof
      listpointer = listpointer -> link;
      listpointer -> link = NULL;
      listpointer -> dataitem = data;
      return lp;

    else {
      listpointer = (struct listelement  *) malloc (sizeof
      listpointer -> link = NULL;
      listpointer -> dataitem = data;
      return listpointer;

listelement * RemoveItem (listelement * listpointer) {

    listelement * tempp;
    printf ("Element removed is %d\n", listpointer -> dataitem);
    tempp = listpointer -> link;
    free (listpointer);
    return tempp;

void PrintQueue (listelement * listpointer) {

    if (listpointer == NULL)
      printf ("queue is empty!\n");
      while (listpointer != NULL) {
          printf ("%d\t", listpointer -> dataitem);
          listpointer = listpointer -> link;
    printf ("\n");

void ClearQueue (listelement * listpointer) {

    while (listpointer != NULL) {
      listpointer = RemoveItem (listpointer);

AND this is the executable file:

#include <stdio.h>
#include <unistd.h>/* contains fork prototype */
#include "gll.h"

listelement listmember, *listpointer, *temp;
long pid, newPid;

void oneMoreDepth();

main ( )
      listelement listmember, *listpointer, *temp;
      int depth;
      int enteredDepth = 4;
      listpointer = NULL;
      listpointer = AddItem (listpointer, getpid());

      for(depth = enteredDepth; depth < 0; depth--)
            while(isEmpty(listpointer) == 1)

            ClearQueue (listpointer);
            listpointer = temp;
      } // for


void oneMoreDepth()
      newPid = RemoveItem(listpointer)->dataitem;
      pid = fork();
      if(pid == newPid)
            printf ("Parent: %d ID: %d\n", getppid(), getpid()) ;
            pid = getpid(); // in order for its second chiled not to fork
      else if(pid == 0)
            printf ("Parent: %d ID: %d\n", getppid(), getpid());
            temp = AddItem (listpointer, getpid());

      if(pid == newPid)
            pid = fork();
            if(pid == 0)
                           printf ("Parent: %d ID: %d\n", getppid(),getpid());
                  temp = AddItem (listpointer, getpid());
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Hi zaaki,
Bus errors in Unix normally happen when the CPU tries to dereference a pointer to multi-byte data (short, int, long, etc) using an address which is not a multiple of the data size. Many RISC architectures (such as SPARC) don't like this.

You can easily create a bus error:

int main(){
    long l=1;
    long *lp=(long*)((char*)&l + 1);


Most of these errors are easy to find. Just compile your source with debug info (-g) and run the binary. Once you get a buss error and a core dump, you can use the debugger to see the place where it happened:

dbx your_binary core

(Solaris example)


Another one is a jump to an odd address:

#include <stdio.h>

int run=1;

typedef int (*main_ptr)();

int main(){
        main_ptr mp;
        printf("Call %d\n",run++);
        mp = (main_ptr)((char*)main+1);

        return 0;

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zaakiAuthor Commented:
Thank you very much for your responce, but I am a beganer in C Language -I know Java & C#- . . .

I could not understand the error . . .

"Segmentation fault" is a new error, and "-1073743228" is printed as the pid (process ID) . . . !!!???

Please help me to solve these problems since the C Language is used in my Operatin Systems Lab. and this code is a part of a long project which is, as I see, is the only efficient, fast, easier, etc.

I was workin during my vecation for 5 days day & night to finish this project. On the other hand I have two more projects to be done. More Importantly I have 9 more days before returning back to my university . . . SO, PLEASE HELP ME . . .

The output of the execution after using gcc with "-o" option is:

Element removed is 23425
Element removed is -1073743228
Segmentation fault

WHILE the errors after compliling the source code using gcc with "-g" option is:

pp2(.text+0x1e8):/usr/src/bs/BUILD/glibc-2.2.2/csu/init.c: multiple definition of `PrintQueue'
/tmp/ccQEzKGZ.o:/home/ugics/st205329/ICS431/Projects/ProjectI/Problem2/tests/gll.h:66: first defined here
/usr/bin/ld: Warning: size of symbol `PrintQueue' changed from 90 to 94 in pp2
pp2(.rodata+0x0):/usr/src/bs/BUILD/glibc-2.2.2/csu/init.c: multiple definition of `_fp_hw'
/usr/lib/gcc-lib/i386-redhat-linux/2.96/../../../crt1.o(.rodata+0x0): first defined here
pp2: In function `_init':
pp2(.init+0x0): multiple definition of `_init'
/usr/lib/gcc-lib/i386-redhat-linux/2.96/../../../crti.o(.init+0x0): first defined here
pp2(.text+0x248):/usr/src/bs/BUILD/glibc-2.2.2/csu/init.c: multiple definition of `ClearQueue'
/tmp/ccQEzKGZ.o:/home/ugics/st205329/ICS431/Projects/ProjectI/Problem2/tests/gll.h:78: first defined here
pp2(.text+0x1ac):/usr/src/bs/BUILD/glibc-2.2.2/csu/init.c: multiple definition of `RemoveItem'
/tmp/ccQEzKGZ.o:/home/ugics/st205329/ICS431/Projects/ProjectI/Problem2/tests/gll.h:57: first defined here
pp2: In function `_start':
pp2(.text+0x0): multiple definition of `_start'
/usr/lib/gcc-lib/i386-redhat-linux/2.96/../../../crt1.o(.text+0x0): first defined here
pp2(.text+0x310):/usr/src/bs/BUILD/glibc-2.2.2/csu/init.c: multiple definition of `oneMoreDepth'
/tmp/ccQEzKGZ.o:/home/ugics/st205329/ICS431/Projects/ProjectI/Problem2/tests/pp2.c:35: first defined here
pp2(.text+0x274):/usr/src/bs/BUILD/glibc-2.2.2/csu/init.c: multiple definition of `main'
/tmp/ccQEzKGZ.o:/home/ugics/st205329/ICS431/Projects/ProjectI/Problem2/tests/pp2.c:11: first defined here
pp2(.fini+0x0):/usr/src/bs/BUILD/glibc-2.2.2/csu/init.c: multiple definition of `_fini'
/usr/lib/gcc-lib/i386-redhat-linux/2.96/../../../crti.o(.fini+0x0): first defined here
pp2(.text+0x11c):/usr/src/bs/BUILD/glibc-2.2.2/csu/init.c: multiple definition of `AddItem'
/tmp/ccQEzKGZ.o:/home/ugics/st205329/ICS431/Projects/ProjectI/Problem2/tests/gll.h:33: first defined here
pp2(.got+0x0):/usr/src/bs/BUILD/glibc-2.2.2/csu/init.c: multiple definition of `_GLOBAL_OFFSET_TABLE_'
/usr/lib/gcc-lib/i386-redhat-linux/2.96/../../../crti.o(.got.plt+0x0): first defined here
pp2(.rodata+0x4):/usr/src/bs/BUILD/glibc-2.2.2/csu/init.c: multiple definition of `_IO_stdin_used'
/usr/lib/gcc-lib/i386-redhat-linux/2.96/../../../crt1.o(.rodata+0x4): first defined here
pp2(.text+0x100):/usr/src/bs/BUILD/glibc-2.2.2/csu/init.c: multiple definition of `isEmpty'
/tmp/ccQEzKGZ.o:/home/ugics/st205329/ICS431/Projects/ProjectI/Problem2/tests/gll.h:26: first defined here
pp2(.data+0x0):/usr/src/bs/BUILD/glibc-2.2.2/csu/init.c: multiple definition of `__data_start'
/usr/lib/gcc-lib/i386-redhat-linux/2.96/../../../crt1.o(.data+0x0): first defined here
/usr/lib/gcc-lib/i386-redhat-linux/2.96/../../../crti.o(.dynamic+0x0): multiple definition of `_DYNAMIC'
pp2(.dynamic+0x0):/usr/src/bs/BUILD/glibc-2.2.2/csu/init.c: first defined here
collect2: ld returned 1 exit status
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