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DNS server problem

Posted on 2004-11-19
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  I have installed DNS server on Wind2k3 .Dont know how to configure it .
  please guide step by step to configure Wind2k3 DNS server . Also guide how to configure MX record.
  Last How to use NSLOOKUP for troubleshooting DNS .
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Question by:ndnmin
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To Install the DNS service

DNS Is a windows component add it as follows.
Click Start, point to Settings, and click Control Panel.
Double click Add or Remove Programs, and then click Add/Remove Windows Components.
In Components, select the Networking Services check box, and then click Details.
In Subcomponents of Networking Services, select the Domain Name System (DNS) checkbox, click OK, and then click Next.
If prompted, in Copy files from, type the full path to the distribution files and then click OK. The required files will be copied to your hard disk.

Installing and configuring a DNS server in Win2K (Screenshots)
http://techrepublic.com.com/5100-6268-1033115.html

Configuring DNS

After installing DNS, you can find the DNS console from Start | Programs | Administrative Tools | DNS. Windows 2000 provides a wizard to help configure your DNS.

When configuring your DNS server, you must be familiar with the following concepts:

Forward lookup zone
Reverse lookup zone
Zone types

A forward lookup zone is simply a way to resolve host names to IP addresses. A reverse lookup zone allows a DNS server to discover the DNS name of the host. Basically, it is the exact opposite of a forward lookup zone. A reverse lookup zone is not required, but it is easy to configure and will allow for your Windows 2000 Server to have full DNS functionality.

When selecting a DNS zone type, you have the following options: Active Directory (AD) Integrated, Standard Primary, and Standard Secondary. AD Integrated stores the database information in AD and allows for secure updates to the database file. This option will appear only if AD is configured. If it is configured and you select this option, AD will store and replicate your zone files.

A Standard Primary zone stores the database in a text file. This text file can be shared with other DNS servers that store their information in a text file. Finally, a Standard Secondary zone simply creates a copy of the existing database from another DNS server. This is primarily used for load balancing.

To open the DNS server configuration tool:
See http://techrepublic.com.com/5100-6268_11-1033115-2.html

Select DNS from the Administrative Tools folder to open the DNS console.
Highlight your computer name and choose Action | Configure The Server to launch the Configure DNS Server Wizard.
Click Next and choose the appropriate Root Server.
Click Next and then click Yes to create a forward lookup zone.
Select the appropriate radio button to install the desired Zone Type.
Click Next and type the name of the zone you are creating.
Click Next and then click Yes to create a reverse lookup zone.
Repeat Step 5.
Click Next and enter the information to identify the reverse lookup zone.
Click Next and review your selections.
Click Finish.

Managing DNS records
see http://techrepublic.com.com/5100-6268_11-1033115-3.html

You have now installed and configured your first DNS server, and you’re ready to add records to the zone(s) you created. There are various types of DNS records available. Many of them you will never use. We’ll be looking at these commonly used DNS records:

Start of Authority (SOA)
Name Servers
Host (A)
Pointer (PTR)
Canonical Name (CNAME) or Alias
Mail Exchange (MX)

***Start of Authority (SOA) record***
The Start of Authority (SOA) resource record is always first in any standard zone. The Start Of Authority (SOA) tab allows you to make any adjustments necessary. You can change the primary server that holds the SOA record, and you can change the person responsible for managing the SOA. Finally, one of the most important features of Windows 2000 is that you can change your DNS server configuration without deleting your zones and having to re-create the wheel

***Name Servers***
Name Servers specify all name servers for a particular domain. You set up all primary and secondary name servers through this record.

To create a Name Server, follow these steps:

Select DNS from the Administrative Tools folder to open the DNS console.
Expand the Forward Lookup Zone.
Right-click on the appropriate domain and choose Properties.
Select the Name Servers tab and click Add.
Enter the appropriate FQDN Server name and IP address of the DNS server you want to add.


Managing DNS records
You have now installed and configured your first DNS server, and you’re ready to add records to the zone(s) you created. There are various types of DNS records available. Many of them you will never use. We’ll be looking at these commonly used DNS records:

Start of Authority (SOA)
Name Servers
Host (A)
Pointer (PTR)
Canonical Name (CNAME) or Alias
Mail Exchange (MX)

***Start of Authority (SOA) record***
The Start of Authority (SOA) resource record is always first in any standard zone. The Start Of Authority (SOA) tab allows you to make any adjustments necessary. You can change the primary server that holds the SOA record, and you can change the person responsible for managing the SOA. Finally, one of the most important features of Windows 2000 is that you can change your DNS server configuration without deleting your zones and having to re-create the wheel


***Name Servers***
Name Servers specify all name servers for a particular domain. You set up all primary and secondary name servers through this record.

To create a Name Server, follow these steps:

Select DNS from the Administrative Tools folder to open the DNS console.
Expand the Forward Lookup Zone.
Right-click on the appropriate domain and choose Properties.
Select the Name Servers tab and click Add.
Enter the appropriate FQDN Server name and IP address of the DNS server you want to add.


***Host (A) records***
A Host (A) record maps a host name to an IP address. These records help you easily identify another server in a forward lookup zone. Host records improve query performance in multiple-zone environments, and you can also create a Pointer (PTR) record at the same time. A PTR record resolves an IP address to a host name.

To create a Host record:

Select DNS from the Administrative Tools folder to open the DNS console.
Expand the Forward Lookup Zone and click on the folder representing your domain.
From the Action menu, select New Host.
Enter the Name and IP Address of the host you are creating.
Select the Create Associated Pointer (PTR) Record check box if you want to create the PTR record at the same time. Otherwise, you can create it later.
Click the Add Host button.
 
***Pointer (PTR) records***
A Pointer (PTR) record creates the appropriate entry in the reverse lookup zone for reverse queries. As you saw in Figure H, you have the option of creating a PTR record when creating a Host record. If you did not choose to create your PTR record at that time, you can do it at any point.

To create a PTR record:

Select DNS from the Administrative Tools folder to open the DNS console.
Choose the reverse lookup zone where you want your PTR record created.
From the Action menu, select New Pointer.
Enter the Host IP Number and Host Name.
Click OK.

***Canonical Name (CNAME) or Alias records***
A Canonical Name (CNAME) or Alias record allows a DNS server to have multiple names for a single host. For example, an Alias record can have several records that point to a single sever in your environment. This is a common approach if you have both your Web server and your mail server running on the same machine.

To create a DNS Alias:

Select DNS from the Administrative Tools folder to open the DNS console.
Expand the Forward Lookup Zone and highlight the folder representing your domain.
From the Action menu, select New Alias.
Enter your Alias Name.
Enter the fully qualified domain name (FQDN).
Click OK.

***Mail Exchange (MX) records***
Mail Exchange records help you identify mail servers within a zone in your DNS database. With this feature, you can prioritise which mail servers will receive the highest priority. Creating MX records will help you keep track of the location of all of your mail servers.

To create a Mail Exchange (MX) record:

Select DNS from the Administrative Tools folder to open the DNS console.
Expand the Forward Lookup Zone and highlight the folder representing your domain.
From the Action menu, select New Mail Exchanger.
Enter the Host Or Domain.
Enter the Mail Server and Mail Server Priority.
Click OK.


*****Links and Further Reading*****

NT4 How to Install and Configure Microsoft DNS Server
http://support.microsoft.com/default.aspx?scid=kb;en-us;172953

HOW TO: Install Network Services Such as WINS and DNS in Windows 2000
http://support.microsoft.com/default.aspx?scid=kb;en-us;261321

HOW TO: Install and Configure DNS Server in Windows Server 2003
http://support.microsoft.com/default.aspx?scid=kb;en-us;814591

Active Directory and DNS
Why needs Windows 2000 DNS?
http://www.windows-expert.net/Common/en/Articles/active-directory-and-dns.asp

Install DNS on Additional Domain Controllers
http://www.microsoft.com/technet/treeview/default.asp?url=/technet/prodtechnol/windowsserver2003/proddocs/deployguide/dssbe_upnt_fkua.asp
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