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What components affect Power Supply rating

My friends and I have decided to build and test a computer power supply

Here is the question.

What component in the power supply affect the wattage rating? (ie. the max current) and how do u make it give more watts?

what component affect the ripple and to make less ripple?

what component affect the tolerance level, say make +12 v give within 5-10% of 12v and how to make it less than 3%

what component affect the stability and life of the power supply?

how do we calculate the maximum power (wattage or even current) a power supply can deliver?

and maybe info on how to pick between components such as op amps and what to look for
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shpark82
Asked:
shpark82
1 Solution
 
dhsindy SparrowRetired considering supplemental income.Commented:
When the output is changed nearly every component has to be changed.  You are going to have rectifiers, voltage dividers, regulators, etc.  What you need to do is decide what the input is and what the outputs are to be.  Design the circuits to perform the functions; then, review each component and figure out what the ratings are for the components.  Every component must be able to tolerate its load without failure.  Even the wires connecting components have to be considered.
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J-A-LCommented:
Hi there...

Well, doing it right is definately not a trivial thing... even if you have a schematicv and parts... understanding how it all works is quite complicated.

Depends if it is a switching power supply or not. (the switching power supplies are more efficient.)  Of course you'll have a transformer, rectifiers, capacitors to reduce ripple... but the technology that regulates power on a moden power supply can vary.

Tolerance is a combination of what the chips can provide and how much of a load can they provide it under... usually specified by the chip manufacturers... and form of power regulator chip... altho... also any reference sources that are used.  Lots of power supplies include some over-voltage and current protection schemes so, tehre's a lot to look in to for a good power supply.


Info on switching power supplies
http://www.smps.us/
http://members.tripod.com/michaelgellis/power4.html

Jeff
at yourtechonline.com
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nobusCommented:
Trying tyo answer your questions : one by one (i have a feeling this is a 200 point question)

>>  What component in the power supply affect the wattage rating? (ie. the max current) and how do u make it give more watts?  << in general, the output circuit, but of course the transformation section from AC to DC must be able to pass it through

>>   what component affect the ripple and to make less ripple?   <<  in general, output  filter capacitors, but the transformation frequency plays here too.

>>  what component affect the tolerance level, say make +12 v give within 5-10% of 12v and how to make it less than 3%  <<  in general the tolerance of the parts used, and the self correcting abilities of the circuit (feedback)


>>  what component affect the stability and life of the power supply   << difficult to comment on, but allowing for a margin in the components used , and their quality are factors

>>  how do we calculate the maximum power (wattage or even current) a power supply can deliver   <<  depends on the output circuit, the stabilisation circuits, and even the cooling

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ridCommented:
"
What component in the power supply affect the wattage rating? (ie. the max current) and how do u make it give more watts?

All components that have to carry the current can affect max power rating. The most complex being the switching circuitry and the stabilizer.


what component affect the ripple and to make less ripple?

Filter capacitors in the DC unit(s). Not a big issue with switching PSU's as they work at such high frequencies. Of course the input stages need good capacitors as well of the right size (microfarads, not physical size).


what component affect the tolerance level, say make +12 v give within 5-10% of 12v and how to make it less than 3%

The stabilizer circuits. The main component is a Zener diode which has to be of good quality, but the circuit design isn't trivial. The DC feedback amplifier and the power stage needs careful design.


what component affect the stability and life of the power supply?

All of them. Keeping on the safe side by by using "oversize" components will almost always give a pay off in better reliability and longer life expectancy. That is because the components run less hot than ones that operate at design centre max rating. Heat is the main killer in the long run. Too low voltage margins on components is the quick  killer.


how do we calculate the maximum power (wattage or even current) a power supply can deliver?

DC output can be safely calculated by doing U x I. Since voltage specs are usually given, the required power will set the minimum current the PSU must be able to deliver (I = P/U) for each separate voltage.

/RID
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