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what does coversion specifiction mean?and how to use them

Posted on 2006-05-25
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Last Modified: 2010-04-15
for example
what of following stand for?
%c,%s,,%d,%u,%x%f
I know %d may be used for ints,how about rests??
and how to use them in printf()?? thanks
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Question by:shingo43
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PaulCaswell earned 60 total points
ID: 16763693
Hi shingo43,

To print a number (as you already know):

int number = 10;
printf ( "Number is %d\n"m number );

For each of the others:

%c One character

%s One string.

%d One decimal number.

%u One unsigned decimal number.

%x One Hexadecimal number.

%f One floating-point number.

Paul
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Expert Comment

by:ozo
ID: 16764860
The conversion specifiers and their meanings are:
d,i The int argument is converted to signed decimal in the style [−]dddd. The
precision specifies the minimum number of digits to appear; if the value
being converted can be represented in fewer digits, it is expanded with
leading zeros. The default precision is 1. The result of converting a zero
value with a precision of zero is no characters.

o,u,x,X The unsigned int argument is converted to unsigned octal (o), unsigned
decimal (u), or unsigned hexadecimal notation (x or X) in the style dddd; the
letters abcdef are used for x conversion and the letters ABCDEF for X
conversion. The precision specifies the minimum number of digits to appear;
if the value being converted can be represented in fewer digits, it is expanded
with leading zeros. The default precision is 1. The result of converting a
zero value with a precision of zero is no characters.
written up to (but not including) the terminating null character. If the
precision is specified, no more than that many bytes are written. If the
precision is not specified or is greater than the size of the array, the array shall
contain a null character.

f,F A double argument representing a floating-point number is converted to
decimal notation in the style [−]ddd.ddd, where the number of digits after
the decimal-point character is equal to the precision specification. If the
precision is missing, it is taken as 6; if the precision is zero and the # flag is
not specified, no decimal-point character appears. If a decimal-point
character appears, at least one digit appears before it. The value is rounded to
the appropriate number of digits.
A double argument representing an infinity is converted in one of the styles
[-]inf or [-]infinity — which style is implementation-defined. A
double argument representing a NaN is converted in one of the styles
[-]nan or [-]nan(n-char-sequence) — which style, and the meaning of
any n-char-sequence, is implementation-defined. The F conversion specifier
produces INF, INFINITY, or NAN instead of inf, infinity, or nan,
respectively.)

e,E A double argument representing a floating-point number is converted in the
style [−]d.ddd e±dd, where there is one digit (which is nonzero if the
argument is nonzero) before the decimal-point character and the number of
digits after it is equal to the precision; if the precision is missing, it is taken as
6; if the precision is zero and the # flag is not specified, no decimal-point
character appears. The value is rounded to the appropriate number of digits.
The E conversion specifier produces a number with E instead of e
introducing the exponent. The exponent always contains at least two digits,
and only as many more digits as necessary to represent the exponent. If the
value is zero, the exponent is zero.
A double argument representing an infinity or NaN is converted in the style
of an f or F conversion specifier.

g,G A double argument representing a floating-point number is converted in
style f or e (or in style F or E in the case of a G conversion specifier),
depending on the value converted and the precision. Let P equal the
precision if nonzero, 6 if the precision is omitted, or 1 if the precision is zero.
Then, if a conversion with style E would have an exponent of X:
— if P > X ≥ −4, the conversion is with style f (or F) and precision
P − (X + 1).
— otherwise, the conversion is with style e (or E) and precision P − 1.
Finally, unless the # flag is used, any trailing zeros are removed from the
fractional portion of the result and the decimal-point character is removed if
there is no fractional portion remaining.
A double argument representing an infinity or NaN is converted in the style
of an f or F conversion specifier.

a,A A double argument representing a floating-point number is converted in the
style [−]0xh.hhhh p±d, where there is one hexadecimal digit (which is
nonzero if the argument is a normalized floating-point number and is
otherwise unspecified) before the decimal-point character238) and the number
of hexadecimal digits after it is equal to the precision; if the precision is
missing and FLT_RADIX is a power of 2, then the precision is sufficient for
an exact representation of the value; if the precision is missing and
FLT_RADIX is not a power of 2, then the precision is sufficient to
distinguish) values of type double, except that trailing zeros may be
omitted; if the precision is zero and the # flag is not specified, no decimalpoint
character appears. The letters abcdef are used for a conversion and
the letters ABCDEF for A conversion. The A conversion specifier produces a
number with X and P instead of x and p. The exponent always contains at
least one digit, and only as many more digits as necessary to represent the
decimal exponent of 2. If the value is zero, the exponent is zero.
A double argument representing an infinity or NaN is converted in the style
of an f or F conversion specifier.

c If no l length modifier is present, the int argument is converted to an
unsigned char, and the resulting character is written.
If an l length modifier is present, the wint_t argument is converted as if by
an ls conversion specification with no precision and an argument that points
to the initial element of a two-element array of wchar_t, the first element
containing the wint_t argument to the lc conversion specification and the
second a null wide character.

s If no l length modifier is present, the argument shall be a pointer to the initial
element of an array of character type.240) Characters from the array are
If an l length modifier is present, the argument shall be a pointer to the initial
element of an array of wchar_t type. Wide characters from the array are
converted to multibyte characters (each as if by a call to the wcrtomb
function, with the conversion state described by an mbstate_t object
initialized to zero before the first wide character is converted) up to and
including a terminating null wide character. The resulting multibyte
characters are written up to (but not including) the terminating null character
(byte). If no precision is specified, the array shall contain a null wide
character. If a precision is specified, no more than that many bytes are
written (including shift sequences, if any), and the array shall contain a null
wide character if, to equal the multibyte character sequence length given by
the precision, the function would need to access a wide character one past the
end of the array. In no case is a partial multibyte character written.)

p The argument shall be a pointer to void. The value of the pointer is
converted to a sequence of printing characters, in an implementation-defined
manner.

n The argument shall be a pointer to signed integer into which is written the
number of characters written to the output stream so far by this call to
fprintf. No argument is converted, but one is consumed. If the conversion
specification includes any flags, a field width, or a precision, the behavior is
undefined.

% A % character is written. No argument is converted. The complete
conversion specification shall be %%.


printf("%c,%s,,%d,%u,%x%f",'c',"string",-123,123,123,1.23);
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Expert Comment

by:kaliyugkaarjun
ID: 16832516
Hi shingo43,


%c is used to print a single character on standard output : printf("%c", ch); where char ch='y';

%s is used to print a string on standard output : printf("%s", ch); where char  ch="myname";

%d is used to print a decimal number (signed integer ) on standard output : printf("%d", a); where int a=10;

%u is used to print an unsigned integer  on standard output : printf("%u", a); where int a=100000;

%x is used to print hexadecimal form of  integer  on standard output : printf("%x", a); where int a=10;

%f is used to print precisioned number on standard output : printf("%f", a); where int a=10.4;
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