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Auto User Creating Linux Script

Posted on 2006-07-03
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Last Modified: 2012-05-07
Hi Experts,
I want Linux Script with following specifications.
*Create Linux users.
      usernames, passwords, home directories are in a seperate CSV (comma seperated file)configuration file. When I run the script, automatically users should created acording to the configuration file.

 Configuration file will looks as follows:
------------------------------------------------
   user1, password1, homedir1
   user2, password2, homedir2
   user3, password3, homedir3
-------------------------------------------------
(And if possible when I enter only the user name, password should automatically sets to the reverse word of the username , eg: 1resu)

And if users are already exist, then no need to create it again and after the script is over output(mentioning whether users have created or not) errors/details should write to a log file.

I would greatly appreciate your help.

Best Regards,
Dushan
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Comment
Question by:Dushan911
8 Comments
 
LVL 38

Expert Comment

by:yuzh
ID: 17035118
You can use a shell script to run "useradd" to do the job, you need to use "expect"
script or "perl" to handle the password.

Please read the answers in:
 http:Q_21112403.html
 http:Q_20339413.html
http:Q_21158545.html

to learn more details.
0
 
LVL 24

Expert Comment

by:slyong
ID: 17035347
There is a perl script here http://www.dfw.net/~scottvr/batchadd.pl, but it is without the homedir part.  It can be modified quite fast.
0
 
LVL 17

Author Comment

by:Dushan911
ID: 17035511
Hi All,
Thanks for your input!
But I want Linux Shell script, not a perl script. :)


yuzh >>
I would greatly appreciate, if you could put shell script , since I'm less familiar with "expect" command. Could you bit eloborate it.


BR Dushan

0
 
LVL 38

Expert Comment

by:yuzh
ID: 17035582
>>I would greatly appreciate, if you could put shell script , since I'm less familiar with "expect" command. Could you bit eloborate it.

1) You need to have "expect" installed on your system:
http://expect.nist.gov/

serach the web to see if there is a binary package for your OS version.

2) do a "man useradd" on your system to see what options you can use
eg:
 
useradd -c "User comment or GCOS" -d /home/newuser -p passwd -g group -m -k /etc/skel -s bin/sh newuser

write down what options you want to use, then run autoexpect to create an expect script on your system.

We can help you to modify the script to accept the loginname password home-dir
(+ default login shell if you wish) as the commandline. then put all of them together to make the script.

autoexpect is very easy to use, do a "man autoexpect" to learn more details.

also have a look at
http:Q_11245534.html
to learn how to handle the password for "useradd -p"
or
simplely use expect script to set the password (passwd loginname).
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LVL 16

Assisted Solution

by:xDamox
xDamox earned 100 total points
ID: 17035602
Hi,

Here is a simple bash script:





#!/bin/bash

USERNAME=`cat data.txt | awk 'BEGIN { FS=", " } { print $1 }'`;
PASSWORD=(`cat data.txt | awk 'BEGIN { FS=", " } { print $2 }'`);
HOMEDIR=(`cat data.txt | awk 'BEGIN { FS=", " } { print $3 }'`);

INDEX=0;

for user in $USERNAME; do
        echo "Adding users: $user with passwd ${PASSWORD[$INDEX]}";
        /usr/sbin/adduser $user -d ${HOMEDIR[$INDEX]}
        let "INDEX += 1";
done;



The only problem with this is it does not set the passwd
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LVL 38

Accepted Solution

by:
yuzh earned 200 total points
ID: 17035749
A better version of the above script (only need to read the file once)

#!/bin/ksh
# read the file and create the users
INPUTFILE=/path-to/datafile
exec 0<$INPUTFILE
while read USERNAME PASSWORD HOME
    do
    # if the user exist do nothing
    TEST=`cat /etc/passwd | cut -f1 -d: | grep -w $USERNAME`
    if [ ! -z $TEST ] ; then
       echo "$USERNAME already exist !..."
    else
       # need to add the user to the system
       /usr/sbin/adduser  $USERNAME -d $HOME  # + other opions
       #use an expecct script to do passwd $USERNAME $PASSWD, we can help
       #you to modify the autoexpect script
    fi
  done
exit

#End of the script
0
 
LVL 27

Assisted Solution

by:Nopius
Nopius earned 100 total points
ID: 17040452
Ok, that's my version :-) It's Linux only version, don't try to run it on Solaris/FreeBSD/etc.

#!/bin/sh
# blabla.txt is that file of comma delimited user,pass,dir
USERFILE=blabla.txt
LOGFILE=file.log
while IFS=, read username password homedir
do
  test -z "$password" && password=`echo $username | rev`
  test -z "$homedir" && homedir="/home/$username"
  ( useradd -m  -d $homedir $username 2>&1 && echo $password | passwd --stdin $username ) || echo `date` error adding user \"$username\" >> $LOGFILE
done < $USERFILE
0
 
LVL 5

Assisted Solution

by:devrick0
devrick0 earned 100 total points
ID: 17046825
This is courtesty of slackware v9.1:


#!/bin/bash

##########################################################################
# Program: /usr/sbin/adduser
# Purpose: Interactive front end to /usr/sbin/useradd for Slackware Linux
# Author : Stuart Winter <stuart@polplex.co.uk>
#          Based on the original Slackware adduser by Hrvoje Dogan
#          with modifications by Patrick Volkerding
# Version: 1.07
##########################################################################
# Usage..: adduser [<new_user_name>]
##########################################################################
# History #
###########
# v1.07 - 07/03/03
#       * When supplying a null string for the uid (meaning 'Choose next available'),
#         if there were file names in the range 'a-z' in the pwd then the
#         egrep command considered these files rather than the null string.
#         The egrep expression is now in quotes.
#         Reported & fixed by Vadim O. Ustiansky <sw>
# v1.06 - 31/03/03
#       * Ask to chown user.group the home directory if it already exists.
#         This helps reduce later confusion when adding users whose home dir
#         already exists (mounted partition for example) and is owned
#         by a user other than the user to which the directory is being
#         assigned as home.  Default is not to chown.
#         Brought to my attention by mRgOBLIN. <sw>
# v1.05 - 04/01/03
#       * Advise & prevent users from creating logins with '.' characters
#         in the user name. <sw>
#       * Made pending account creation info look neater <sw>
# v1.04 - 09/06/02
#       * Catered for shadow-4.0.3's 'useradd' binary that no longer
#         will let you create a user that has any uppercase chars in it
#         This was reported on the userlocal.org forums
#         by 'xcp' - thanks. <sw,pjv>
# v1.03 - 20/05/02
#       * Support 'broken' (null lines in) /etc/passwd and
#         /etc/group files <sw>
#       * For recycling UIDs (default still 'off'), we now look in
#         /etc/login.defs for the UID_MIN value and use it
#         If not found then default to 1000 <sw>
# v1.02 - 10/04/02
#       * Fix user-specified UID bug. <pjv>
# v1.01 - 23/03/02
#       * Match Slackware indenting style, simplify. <pjv>
# v1.00 - 22/03/02
#       * Created
#######################################################################

# Path to files
pfile=/etc/passwd
gfile=/etc/group
sfile=/etc/shells

# Paths to binaries
useradd=/usr/sbin/useradd
chfn=/usr/bin/chfn
passwd=/usr/bin/passwd
chmod=/bin/chmod

# Defaults
defhome=/home
defshell=/bin/bash
defchmod=711 # home dir permissions - may be preferable to use 701, however.
defgroup=users

# Determine what the minimum UID is (for UID recycling)
# (we ignore it if it's not at the beginning of the line (i.e. commented out with #))
export recycleUIDMIN="$(grep ^UID_MIN /etc/login.defs | awk '{print $2}' 2>/dev/null)"
# If we couldn't find it, set it to the default of 1000
if [ -z "$recycleUIDMIN" ]; then
   export recycleUIDMIN=1000  # this is the default from Slackware's /etc/login.defs
fi


# This setting enables the 'recycling' of older unused UIDs.
# When you userdel a user, it removes it from passwd and shadow but it will
# never get used again unless you specify it expliticly -- useradd (appears to) just
# look at the last line in passwd and increment the uid.  I like the idea of
# recycling uids but you may have very good reasons not to (old forgotten
# confidential files still on the system could then be owned by this new user).
# We'll set this to no because this is what the original adduser shell script
# did and it's what users expect.
recycleuids=no

# Function to read keyboard input.
# bash1 is broken (even ash will take read -ep!), so we work around
# it (even though bash1 is no longer supported on Slackware).
function get_input() {
  local output
  if [ "`echo $BASH_VERSION | cut -b1`" = "1" ]; then
    echo -n "${1} " >&2 ; # fudge for use with bash v1
    read output
  else # this should work with any other /bin/sh
    read -ep "${1} " output
  fi
  echo $output
}

# Function to display the account info
function display () {
  local goose
  goose="$(echo $2 | cut -d ' ' -f 2-)"  # lop off the prefixed argument useradd needs
  echo -n "$1 "
  # If it's null then display the 'other' information
  if [ -z "$goose" -a ! -z "$3" ]; then
    echo "$3"
  else
    echo "$goose"
  fi
}

# Function to check whether groups exist in the /etc/group file
function check_group () {
  local got_error group
  if [ ! -z "$@" ]; then
  for group in $@ ; do
    local uid_not_named="" uid_not_num=""
    grep -v "$^" $gfile | awk -F: '{print $1}' | grep "^${group}$" >/dev/null 2>&1 || uid_not_named=yes
    grep -v "$^" $gfile | awk -F: '{print $3}' | grep "^${group}$" >/dev/null 2>&1 || uid_not_num=yes
    if [ ! -z "$uid_not_named" -a ! -z "$uid_not_num" ]; then
      echo "- Group '$group' does not exist"
      got_error=yes
    fi
  done
  fi
  # Return exit code of 1 if at least one of the groups didn't exist
  if [ ! -z "$got_error" ]; then
    return 1
  fi
}

#: Read the login name for the new user :#
#
# Remember that most Mail Transfer Agents are case independant, so having
# 'uSer' and 'user' may cause confusion/things to break.  Because of this,
# useradd from shadow-4.0.3 no longer accepts usernames containing uppercase,
# and we must reject them, too.

# Set the login variable to the command line param
echo
LOGIN="$1"
needinput=yes
while [ ! -z $needinput ]; do
  if [ -z "$LOGIN" ]; then
    while [ -z "$LOGIN" ]; do LOGIN="$(get_input "Login name for new user []:")" ; done
  fi
  grep "^${LOGIN}:" $pfile >/dev/null 2>&1  # ensure it's not already used
  if [ $? -eq 0 ]; then
    echo "- User '$LOGIN' already exists; please choose another"
    unset LOGIN
  elif [ ! "$LOGIN" = "`echo $LOGIN | tr A-Z a-z`" ]; then # useradd does not allow uppercase
    echo "- User '$LOGIN' contains illegal characters (uppercase); please choose another"
    unset LOGIN
  elif [ ! -z "$( echo $LOGIN | grep '\.' )" ]; then
    echo "- User '$LOGIN' contains illegal characters (period/dot); please choose another"
    unset LOGIN
  else
    unset needinput
  fi
done

# Display the user name passed from the shell if it hasn't changed
if [ "$1" = "$LOGIN" ]; then
  echo "Login name for new user: $LOGIN"
fi

#: Get the UID for the user & ensure it's not already in use :#
#
# Whilst we _can_ allow users with identical UIDs, it's not a 'good thing' because
# when you change password for the uid, it finds the first match in /etc/passwd
# which isn't necessarily the correct user
#
echo
needinput=yes
while [ ! -z "$needinput" ]; do
  _UID="$(get_input "User ID ('UID') [ defaults to next available ]:")"
  grep -v "^$" $pfile | awk -F: '{print $3}' | grep "^${_UID}$" >/dev/null 2>&1
  if [ $? -eq 0 ]; then
    echo "- That UID is already in use; please choose another"
  elif [ ! -z "$(echo $_UID | egrep '[A-Za-z]')" ]; then
    echo "- UIDs are numerics only"
  else
    unset needinput
  fi
done
# If we were given a UID, then syntax up the variable to pass to useradd
if [ ! -z "$_UID" ]; then
  U_ID="-u ${_UID}"
else
  # Will we be recycling UIDs?
  if [ "$recycleuids" = "yes" ]; then
    U_ID="-u $(awk -F: '{uid[$3]=1} END { for (i=ENVIRON["recycleUIDMIN"];i in uid;i++);print i}' $pfile)"
  fi
fi

#: Get the initial group for the user & ensure it exists :#
#
# We check /etc/group for both the text version and the group ID number
echo
needinput=yes
while [ ! -z "$needinput" ]; do
  GID="$(get_input "Initial group [ ${defgroup} ]:")"
  check_group "$GID"
  if [ $? -gt 0 ]; then
    echo "- Please choose another"
  else
    unset needinput
  fi
done
# Syntax the variable ready for useradd
if [ -z "$GID" ]; then
  GID="-g ${defgroup}"
else
  GID="-g ${GID}"
fi

#: Get additional groups for the user :#
#
echo
needinput=yes
while [ ! -z "$needinput" ]; do
  AGID="$(get_input "Additional groups (comma separated) []:")"
  AGID="$(echo "$AGID" | tr -d ' ' | tr , ' ')" ; # fix up for parsing
  if [ ! -z "$AGID" ]; then
    check_group "$AGID"  # check all groups at once (treated as N # of params)
    if [ $? -gt 0 ]; then
      echo "- Please re-enter the group(s)"
    else
      unset needinput # we found all groups specified
      AGID="-G $(echo "$AGID" | tr ' ' ,)"
    fi
  else
    unset needinput   # we don't *have* to have additional groups
  fi
done

#: Get the new user's home dir :#
#
echo
needinput=yes
while [ ! -z "$needinput" ]; do
  HME="$(get_input "Home directory [ ${defhome}/${LOGIN} ]")"
  if [ -z "$HME" ]; then
    HME="${defhome}/${LOGIN}"
  fi
  # Warn the user if the home dir already exists
  if [ -d "$HME" ]; then
    echo "- Warning: '$HME' already exists !"
    getyn="$(get_input "  Do you wish to change the home directory path ? (Y/n) ")"
    if [ "$(echo $getyn | grep -i "n")" ]; then
      unset needinput
      # You're most likely going to only do this if you have the dir *mounted* for this user's $HOME
      getyn="$(get_input "  Do you want to chown $LOGIN.$( echo $GID | awk '{print $2}') $HME ? (y/N) ")"
      if [ "$(echo $getyn | grep -i "y")" ]; then
         CHOWNHOMEDIR=$HME # set this to the home directory
      fi
    fi
  else
    unset needinput
  fi
done
HME="-d ${HME}"

#: Get the new user's shell :#
echo
needinput=yes
while [ ! -z "$needinput" ]; do
  unset got_error
  SHL="$(get_input "Shell [ ${defshell} ]")"
  if [ -z "$SHL" ]; then
    SHL="${defshell}"
  fi
  # Warn the user if the shell doesn't exist in /etc/shells or as a file
  if [ -z "$(grep "^${SHL}$" $sfile)" ]; then
    echo "- Warning: ${SHL} is not in ${sfile} (potential problem using FTP)"
    got_error=yes
  fi
  if [ ! -f "$SHL" ]; then
    echo "- Warning: ${SHL} does not exist as a file"
    got_error=yes
  fi
  if [ ! -z "$got_error" ]; then
    getyn="$(get_input "  Do you wish to change the shell ? (Y/n) ")"
    if [ "$(echo $getyn | grep -i "n")" ]; then
      unset needinput
    fi
  else
    unset needinput
  fi
done
SHL="-s ${SHL}"

#: Get the expiry date :#
echo
needinput=yes
while [ ! -z "$needinput" ]; do
  EXP="$(get_input "Expiry date (YYYY-MM-DD) []:")"
  if [ ! -z "$EXP" ]; then
    # Check to see whether the expiry date is in the valid format
    if [ -z "$(echo "$EXP" | grep "^[[:digit:]]\{4\}[-]\?[[:digit:]]\{2\}[-]\?[[:digit:]]\{2\}$")" ]; then
      echo "- That is not a valid expiration date"
    else
      unset needinput
      EXP="-e ${EXP}"
    fi
  else
    unset needinput
  fi
done

# Display the info about the new impending account
echo
echo "New account will be created as follows:"
echo
echo "---------------------------------------"
display "Login name.......: " "$LOGIN"
display "UID..............: " "$_UID" "[ Next available ]"
display "Initial group....: " "$GID"
display "Additional groups: " "$AGID" "[ None ]"
display "Home directory...: " "$HME"
display "Shell............: " "$SHL"
display "Expiry date......: " "$EXP" "[ Never ]"
echo

echo "This is it... if you want to bail out, hit Control-C.  Otherwise, press"
echo "ENTER to go ahead and make the account."
read junk

echo
echo "Creating new account..."
echo
echo

# Add the account to the system
CMD="$useradd "$HME" -m "$EXP" "$U_ID" "$GID" "$AGID" "$SHL" "$LOGIN""
$CMD

if [ $? -gt 0 ]; then
  echo "- Error running useradd command -- account not created!"
  echo "(cmd: $CMD)"
  exit 1
fi

# chown the home dir ?  We can only do this once the useradd has
# completed otherwise the user name doesn't exist.
if [ ! -z "${CHOWNHOMEDIR}" ]; then
  chown "$LOGIN"."$( echo $GID | awk '{print $2}')" "${CHOWNHOMEDIR}"
fi

# Set the finger information
$chfn "$LOGIN"
if [ $? -gt 0 ]; then
  echo "- Warning: an error occurred while setting finger information"
fi

# Set a password
$passwd "$LOGIN"
if [ $? -gt 0 ]; then
  echo "* WARNING: An error occured while setting the password for"
  echo "           this account.  Please manually investigate this *"
  exit 1
fi

# If it was created (it should have been!), set the permissions for that user's dir
HME="$(echo "$HME" | awk '{print $2}')"  # We have to remove the -g prefix
if [ -d "$HME" ]; then
  $chmod $defchmod "$HME"
fi

echo
echo
echo "Account setup complete."
exit 0              
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