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affix[root, stem, base] ?

Posted on 2006-10-21
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how does one call pig in homepig or homo in homosapiens ?

root ? stem ? base ? - which one is best, which ones  are valid ?
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Question by:ed987
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by:sunnycoder
ID: 17780552
Hi ed987,

The name Homo sapiens follows binomial nomenclature ... Homo here is called generic name or genus .. sapiens is the name of the species or specific name

For more details
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Binomial_nomenclature

Cheers!
sunnycoder
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by:ed987
ID: 17781301
no, i ment generic way

word3 = word1+word2

where word2 is a [ root,stem,base....? ] of word3.



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by:sunnycoder
ID: 17782444
Ok ... root ....  A word root is a part of a word. It contains the core meaning of the word, but it cannot stand alone.
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by:callrs
ID: 17783438


In this case, neither 'root', 'stem', nor 'base' are valid: Homopig & Homosapiens are not official words.

Homo, as in "Homo sapiens", is a noun. Sapiens is an adjective. Homo sapiens -> two words.
Homo-, as in "homotype" etc., is a prefix. The rest is a matter of analysis:

More on root, base, stem, etc.: http://www.sendspace.com/file/42ysj5
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by:callrs
ID: 17783513
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by:callrs
ID: 17895065
Good? :)
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by:sunnycoder
ID: 17895485
>Homo, as in "Homo sapiens", is a noun. Sapiens is an adjective. Homo sapiens -> two words.
Not quite ... "Homo Sapiens" being name is a noun .... There is no adjective in there ...
http://www.webster.com/cgi-bin/dictionary?va=Homo%20sapiens
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callrs earned 1000 total points
ID: 17900793
Two words from what's called a "compound noun": noun (Homo=man) + adjective (sapiens=wise, rational, thinking). (http://www.edufind.com/English/Grammar/NOUNS4.cfm  Compound nouns - Formation)

http://www.bartleby.com/61/99/H0259900.html   The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language: Fourth Edition.
Noun: The modern species of humans, the only extant species of the primate family Hominidae.  
Etymology: New Latin Hom sapins, species name : Latin hom, man + Latin sapins, wise, rational, present participle of sapere, to be wise.  

http://dictionary.laborlawtalk.com/Back-formation   Back-formation
Homo sapiens is Latin for thinking man and is in fact singular according to strict grammar rules (plural would be homines sapientes,) but many incorrectly take homo sapiens to be plural, and homo sapien to be singular.

---
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/Homo Homo
n. A member of the genus Homo, which includes the extinct and extant species of humans.
[Latin hom, man. See dhghem- in Indo-European Roots.]

http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/sapiens sapiens
adj. Of, relating to, or characteristic of Homo sapiens.
[Latin sapins, sapient- present participle of sapere, to taste, be wise. See sapient.]

http://dictionary.reference.com/search?r=2&q=Homo%20sapiens Homo sapiens
n. The modern species of humans, the only extant species of the primate family Hominidae.
[New Latin Hom sapins, species name : Latin hom, man + Latin sapins, wise, rational, present participle of sapere, to be wise.]

--
http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=homo- homo-
"the same," prefix commonly used to form modern words, from Gk. homos "one and the same," also "belonging to two or more jointly," from PIE *somos (cf. Skt. samah "even, the same;" Lith. similis "like," Goth. sama "the same," samana "together;" see same).

More info in the earlier posted link.
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by:sunnycoder
ID: 17903737
All the links you posted say the same ... homo sapiens is a noun!!!
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by:callrs
ID: 17906028


Yes, and more accurately, it's a compound noun.

But the question specifically asks not about the whole but about the parts: "how does one call pig in homepig or homo in homosapiens ?
--> You don't, since neither compound is a word.
--> But if you correctly spell the latter with the two words of the compound noun "Homo sapiens" --> Homo (noun) + sapiens (adjective)

Homo by itself or in a word such "Homotype", can be considered, according to http://folk.uio.no/hhasselg/terms.html#stem Grammar glossary
- a base --"uninflected form of a word...base form of a noun is its singular form...base form is what you find in the dictionary"
- a stem -- "main part of a word to which inflectional morphemes/suffixes may be added...in the case of nouns is the singular form."

Is it a root? The root is something which "cannot be divided into smaller meaningful units". So for Homo, the root is Hom since Homo derives from the Latin "Hom".

The plural of Homo is Homines (http://www.compmore.net/~tntr/cide.html), while the genitive (possessive) plural of Homo is Hóminum (http://www.latin-mass-society.org/pmg/pmg8.htm). So in the word Homines, Homo would be stem and the base, and Hom is the root.

Study the various definitions & you may come to different conclusions...it's a matter of analysis as I said. E.g. according to http://www.hhhh.org/perseant/libellus/aides/allgre/allgre.24.html Allen and Greenough's New Latin Grammar, section 24 - Root, Stem, Base
>
- The Stem may be the same as the root.. but it is more frequently formed from the root
- The Base is that part of a word which is unchanged in inflection: as, serv- in servus; mens- in mensa; ígn- in ígnis.
- The Base and the Stem are often identical...If, however, the stem ends in a vowel, the latter does not appear in the base, but is variously combined with the inflectional termination. Thus the stem of servus is servo-; that of ménsa, ménsá-; that of ígnis, ígni-.
<
--> So if you take singular and plural "Homo" and "Homines", the base and root would be "hom", not "homo", while the stem would be "homo".

Bottom line?
- In compound nouns, "homo" is simply a noun, as I first defined in the sendspace link, not a root.
- In it's inflected forms or with an affix added, Homo is the stem, "Hom" the root, and "Hom" or "Homo" the base

 -rs-
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by:sunnycoder
sunnycoder earned 1000 total points
ID: 17906202
>The root is something which "cannot be divided into smaller meaningful units".
Not everything indivisible is root ... More appropriate way of recognizing a root is that it would hold prime context of the word. It may be a word in itself too (e.g. arbor), but more often than not, it would be a part of it.

Homo is Greek root in Homo Sapiens
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greek_and_Latin_roots#H

I agree that most is indeed is a matter of own analysis and understanding
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by:callrs
ID: 17906604

Some things are clear cut. One is that Homo in Homo sapiens is a noun in a noun+adjective pair. You can't call it the root of Homo sapiens, since root need be found for each word. E.g. it'd be silly to say that roller is the root of roller-coaster.

Since "Homo sapiens" is made up of two separate words; i.e. not one word with affixes but two words, --> we  have to contend with the root of each one separately; the root, according to official sources, of Homo is Hom, and the root of sapiens is... (it's derived from Latin sapere, and dictionary.com & others define a root as sep-)

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by:sunnycoder
ID: 17911951
>E.g. it'd be silly to say that roller is the root of roller-coaster.
I fail to see the analogy ... rollercoaster are two words too? .. noun and adjective again? roller is not the root but the stem of the word?

>the root, according to official sources, of Homo is Hom
I would gladly concede on that if you could quote me the official source.
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by:callrs
ID: 18154171

"Homo here is called generic name..." -> Ignores the question & title.
"Ok ... root ....A word root...cannot stand alone" -> Homo can stand alone & by itself can mean 'Homo sapiens'.
"Homo is Greek root in Homo Sapiens" -> contradictory to above statement. But neither Homo, nor Hom, nor sapiens, is the root of the compound word 'Homo sapiens'.
"Homo sapiens... is a noun" -> that's not what's asked.
"There is no adjective in there" -> there is
"rollercoaster are two words too?" -> two to form a compound roller-coaster


http#17906202 and similar answers do no justice to the question. Had hoped not to have to go on and on, but here's my response to #17911951:

1) roller and coaster --> Each is obviously a word.

Compound nouns -- joined, hyphenated, or separated -- consist of two words, such as tumbleweed, teardrop, high-rise, double take.  Roller in roller-coaster is neither root nor stem of the noun, since coaster is its own word (it's not an affix etc.). The word "roller" -> find its own root/stem etc.

2) I have an answer but should stop here. Failing input from the asker, asked is the relation of Homo within Homo sapiens, not without. To go into root/stem/etc. of Homo, of roller, and then of coaster, sapiens, etc. is a matter of time-consuming research & analysis, and just the little work so far has cost some hours. If you want to know extra (http:help.jsp#hi45), you could ask your own question...

"Stem, base, root?" -> often not easy to answer; I stayed away until finding misstatements such as "word root ... cannot stand alone", "Homo is Greek root in Homo Sapiens" [this misleadingly implies, vis-à-vis what's been asked twice, that Homo is the root of the compound], "...no adjective in there"..., (besides use of "Home Sapiens" & "home sapiens" vs. the correct "Homo sapiens").


Root/stem/base of the first or second word doesn't become root/stem/base of the compound. What is asked? -> What does one call "Homo" in "Homo sapiens"? -> It's a noun in a noun-adjective compound. Neither "Homo" nor "Hom" is root of 'Homo sapiens', nor is "sapi-" nor "sep-" nor "sapiens" the root of 'Homo sapiens' (don't we know it lol - man in this age is wise? hmm). But "homo-" has another meaning & use as a prefix, as previously mentioned (http:#17783438) where question has been answered.
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