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Photoshop: print a photo (how to: 300dpi)

I need to print photos and never did that before on my home printer.
I took the pix from my digital camera and put them in Photoshop, resized them to the size I need and print them. To resize I used the CTRL+T function (free transform).

The result is not usable, very large pixels somehow.

So my assumtpion is I need to change the dpi of my printer. My questions:

1) If I look at the photo's properties in Photoshop, it says 72pxiels/inch. For a good photo resolution I need to set this to 300, correct?

2) If I start a new image with 300 dpi and copy the photo into it, it stays the same size... +

3) What do I have to do to be able to resize the photo and get a top result when printing it?

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2 Solutions
Have you made the photo smaller with Ctrl+T? It should cause bad print if you had

1) The dpi amount doesn't affect the picture you see on the screen. But for a good _printed_ photo you need it 300, yes.
2) Then it is ok.

My advise is not to use copy-paste practice, but to open the image with photoshop via "Open.."
It will give you better control on image size. You can use Image/Image size to manage it. And use Image/Canvas size to crop it.
Or you can even to do nothing after opening the image. Click File/Print with preview. It offers simple interface to printing your image. But note that if you will scale your image to 200%, it will lose quality anyway. You can do nothing with it.
SmoerbleAuthor Commented:
The thing is, I need a pretty much exact size of the faces (for passports)- If I use only the % of the printer preview it will take several attempts until it is close enough I am afraid.
It's clear now.
If all you need is a batch photo preparing for the same dimensions, then I can recommend the following workflow:
Open image file
Select Crop tool in a toolbar
Type your dimensions in upper context menu: Resolution should be always 300 pixels/inch, Width and Height at your discretion. Note that you could (it will be useful in your case) type units there ("0,5 in", "70 mm")
Be careful, if Crop's margins will be outside the image border, the will be filled with background color.
After you selected your area, click V icon or hit Enter.
Voila, your image will have no problem when printed (if you won't play with dimensions in print settings, of course).
You can even save it as tif or psd (jpeg is lossy) and print somewhere else if you need, most of the graphic programs will follow your dimensions as Photoshop does.
This could be done also in this way:
Create a New file fro the File Menu. Set up the dimensions of your new canvass to the size you want. Note: If the dimension is in pixel, you can change it into inches by clicking the small triangle beside the dimension.
Set the resolution to 300 if that's what you prepare. when everything is set, click ok

Open the picture you have from the File Menu, then copy it to your new created file. Use the Ctl T shorcut to transform it so that it will fit in your new file.

Save the file as JPEG. You can now insert that file in Microsoft Word by not changing anymore its size. Once you print it, you will get the exact size you wanted.

Hope this helps.

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