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Convert Hex value to String

Posted on 2008-11-03
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Last Modified: 2012-05-05
I need a function that convert HEX string to Ascii string or readable string,
anyody help me?

So hex-string :#$2A#$86#$48#$86#$F7#$0D#$02#$05

thanks.

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Question by:M-Khorsandi
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22 Comments
 
LVL 28

Expert Comment

by:ciuly
Comment Utility
you will see garbage because your hex string rep[resents binary data.
function hexstos(s:string):string;

var i:integer;

    t:string;

begin

  result:='';

  if s='' then

    exit;

  assert(s[1]='#');

  i:=2;

  repeat

    T:='';

    while (i<=length(s)) and (s[i]<>'#') do

    begin

      t:=t+s[i];

      inc(i);

    end;

    inc(i);

    result:=result+chr(strtoint(t));

  until i>=length(s);

end;
 

procedure TForm1.FormCreate(Sender: TObject);

begin

  showmessage(hexstos('#$2A#$86#$48#$86#$F7#$0D#$02#$05'));

end;

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LVL 19

Assisted Solution

by:MerijnB
MerijnB earned 20 total points
Comment Utility
I think you mean something like this:
function StrDisplayHex(Data: string): string;

var i: integer;

begin

 result := '';
 

 for i := 1 to Length(Data) do

  result := result + ' $' + IntToHex(Ord(Data[i]), 2);
 

 result := Trim(result);

end;

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LVL 45

Expert Comment

by:aikimark
Comment Utility
I think we've missed the best solution.

* use COPY() to get the three characters that represent the hex literal
* use INC(i, 4) to position to the next set
* depending on the length of the string, we might also consider minimizing the number of concatenations while building the result.
function StrDisplayHex(Data: string): string;

var i: integer;

begin

 i := 2;

 repeat 

  result := result + Chr(StrToInt(Copy(Data, i, 3)));

  inc(i, 4);

 Until i > Length(Data);

end;

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LVL 28

Expert Comment

by:ciuly
Comment Utility
if you're looking for speed then the next one is much better:
function hexstos(s:string):string;

var i, j, c:integer;

    a,b:pchar;

begin

  setlength(result, length(s) div 4);

  a:=pchar(s);

  b:=pchar(result);

  i:=3;

  j:=1;

  c:=length(result);

  while j<=c do

  begin

    b[j]:=char(byte(a[i])*16+byte(a[i+1]));

    i:=i+4;

    j:=j+1;

  end;

end;

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LVL 45

Expert Comment

by:aikimark
Comment Utility
@ciuly

Aren't we all looking for speed?!? :-)
Why else use Delphi?

Question: Why i := i + 4; instead of Inc(i, 4) ?
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LVL 28

Expert Comment

by:ciuly
Comment Utility
>> Aren't we all looking for speed?!? :-)

not necessarely. if you want super speed, you will use C (not c++) or ASM.

>> Question: Why i := i + 4; instead of Inc(i, 4) ?

look at the dissasembly. inc is a procedure. you waste a few machine cycles by calling a procedure and returning from it :P

>> Why else use Delphi?

because delphi is RAD. sure, we want speed, but primarely, we want it at development stage. THEN, we can do optimizations, where possible. either speed optimizations or memory optimizations or both. depending on the problem in hand.
and when you want speed in delphi, the first thing you eliminate as much as possible are the delphi string routines. next, optimize all memory managements plus other stuff.
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LVL 45

Expert Comment

by:aikimark
Comment Utility
I'd have thought the compiler to be more optimized (smarter) than that, but Inc() can also vary a range of ordinal values, so I understand the overhead.
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LVL 6

Expert Comment

by:JosephGlosz
Comment Utility
Hmm, regarding 'inc' ..  I wonder why the Delphi Help has said the following about "inc" for years:

X increments by 1, or by N if N is specified; that is, Inc(X) corresponds to the statement X := X + 1, and Inc(X, N) corresponds to the statement X := X + N. However, Inc generates optimized code and is especially useful in tight loops.

Has Borland / Inprise / CodeGear / Embarcadero overlooked this for all these years? Shouldn't someone write up a trouble ticket for this? At least, to fix the help files?

I decided to test this with the following simple program. Button1 runs an "inc" loop BIG times (in this case a billion times). Button2 runs i := i + 4 loop the same number of times.  With compiler optimization both off and on, the inc loop generally runs a few ms faster. Results vary a bit because your Windows system is doing other things when you click the buttons. But I get results like 3266 ms versus 3282 ms (optimization off) and 466 ms vs 484 ms (optimization on).


const
  BIG = 1000000000;

procedure TForm1.Button1Click(Sender: TObject);
var
  i,j: Longint;
  T1,T2: TDateTime;
begin
 j := 0;
 T1 := Now;
 for i := 1 to BIG do
   inc(j,4);
 T2 := Now;
 Label1.Caption := format('Time Dif = %d ms',[MillisecondsBetween(T1,T2)]);
end;

procedure TForm1.Button2Click(Sender: TObject);
var
  i,j: Longint;
  T1,T2: TDateTime;
begin
 j := 0;
 T1 := Now;
 for i := 1 to BIG do
   j := j + 4;
 T2 := Now;
 Label2.Caption := format('Time Dif = %d ms',[MillisecondsBetween(T1,T2)]);
end;




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LVL 28

Expert Comment

by:ciuly
Comment Utility
I didn't know about that :)
but you are right, inc generates optimized code (meaning there is no procedure call/ret as I incorrectly assumed (wallbash)).
but the weird thing is that both inc(var, 4) and var:=var+4 generate the same asm code (add <some 32 bit register>, 4). so from this point of view, they should be of the same speed.
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LVL 45

Expert Comment

by:aikimark
Comment Utility
Vindication!   :-)
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Expert Comment

by:JosephGlosz
Comment Utility
Chewie, I agree with you. Maybe they *are* the the same speed. If you iterate something a billion times, and the speed difference amounts to just a few milliseconds, I'd consider them pretty much equal. Especially given that there might be some 30 or more other processes running in Windows at one time.
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LVL 45

Expert Comment

by:aikimark
Comment Utility
@ciuly

I've got a newb question for you about your fast solution.
What does the compiler do when a[i] is 'A'..'F'?

I can understand where the compiler might correctly interpret '0'..'9', but might just as easily use the ASCII character value of a[i], which would result in incorrect byte value calculations (and wrong strings).
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Accepted Solution

by:
ciuly earned 20 total points
Comment Utility
that's not actually the problem. I was doing typecasting, so byte('0') is actualy ord('0') and not 0.

correct way would be (written directly in browser, hope it compiles)

function hexstos(s:string):string;
var i, j, c:integer;
    a,b:pchar;
    t1,t2:byte;
begin
  setlength(result, length(s) div 4);
  a:=pchar(s);
  b:=pchar(result);
  i:=3;
  j:=1;
  c:=length(result);
  while j<=c do
  begin
    t1:=byte(a[i])-$30;
    if t1>9 then
      t1:=t1-$10+10;// uppercase
    if t1>15 then
      t1:=t1-$10;// lowercase
    t2:=byte(a[i+1])-$30;
    if t2>9 then
      t2:=t2-$10+10;// uppercase
    if t2>15 then
      t2:=t2-$10;// lowercase
    b[j]:=char(t1*16+t2);
    i:=i+4;
    j:=j+1;
  end;
end;

obviously I don't know how optimum this is. I am working on something else right now and can't switch. but if I am correct, precalculated arrays will be faster. that is one "big" array from '0' to 'f' in which the relevant elements are initialized with their coresponding values. (array['0'..'f'] of byte; for whomever wants to try)
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LVL 45

Expert Comment

by:aikimark
Comment Utility
I was thinking of array, ordinal, or enum solutions as well.  Somewhere in the deep recesses of my memory is an example where values are translated into a zero-based value without having to do any initialization or value-matching lookups.

I think it is an adequate assumption to only include the upper case 'A'..'F' values along with the numeric characters.

I would also replace *16 with shl( , 4)
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LVL 6

Expert Comment

by:JosephGlosz
Comment Utility
another common way is to use the pos function to return the correct byte equivalent of a hex digit.

S := '1e';  // sample hex string
i := HexToByte(S);  

function HexToByte(S: string): integer;
const
  HEX = '0123456789ABCDEF';
begin
  S := UpperCase(S);  // just in case
  result := 0;
  for i := 1 to length(S) do  // probably should limit to a small length
    result := result*16 + succ(pos(S[i],HEX));  //no error check here
end;






 
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LVL 28

Expert Comment

by:ciuly
Comment Utility
>> I would also replace *16 with shl( , 4)

that is already done by the compiler if optimizations are on. but good call, for the case when it's not on.

joesph, that's not optimal :) for every iteration, you will call the pos fnciton, which also requires creating a stack for it (since it has at least one variable) plus copying the HEX string on that stack (!!!) and then doing a not at all optimal search, even if the string is short. I would say it's maybe 5 to 10 times slower then a lookup table.
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LVL 6

Expert Comment

by:JosephGlosz
Comment Utility
you are absolutely right. Far, far from optimal.  To find the 'F' in the string, 'pos' has to make 15 other comparisons first.

 I sure wouldn't use it in a big loop or anywhere else where it's called frequently.

On the other hand, if we used Microsoft's philosophy, we wouldn't care about the inefficiency, and simply let the next generation of processors make things fast enough for us... :)
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LVL 45

Expert Comment

by:aikimark
Comment Utility
I recommend a points split:

http:#22878890  Author:ciuly
http:#22866239  Author:MerijnB
http:#22866612  Author:aikimark
http:#22879498  Author:JosephGlosz
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LVL 100

Expert Comment

by:mlmcc
Comment Utility
That was my attempt.

 40 points can only be split into 2 (20 point minimum on a split)

Please pick 2 of the answers.

mlmcc
0
 
LVL 45

Expert Comment

by:aikimark
Comment Utility
http:#22878890  Author:ciuly
http:#22866239  Author:MerijnB
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