Enterprise Database built for Maximum performance and high scalability?

SQL Server 2005 Database Question: Enterprise Database built for Maximum performance and high scalability!  

This question has three parts
#1 - Performance: Will performance increase if I choose to use NewSquentialID() instead of NewID() for replication ROWGUID? or this does not matter for replication, better to have the number random as possible?
#2 - Performance: Should the primary key "bigint" and "int" and "Rowguid" be removed and all replaced with a single "uniqueidentifier" Primary key, with the default set to NewSquentialID()?
#3  Optimisation: Is there anything else I can do to optimise the database below? (I have ROWGUID in every single table).

See Sample ER Diagram below, currently:
PRIMARY KEY has been set to identity, not unique
ROWGUID has been set to default: Newid(),unique.
ERsample.gif
KhouAsked:
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Guy Hengel [angelIII / a3]Billing EngineerCommented:
#1: it does not matter. the value generated is only relevant for the current row, and for "order by" values, not for replication

#2: the data type you choose depends more on how much rows you will have to store in the table, over the lifetime of the application.

#3: in what terms do you mean "optimize"?
  also, why do you have both identity AND rowguid, if both are unique (the second for the replication, I presume?)
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KhouAuthor Commented:
@angelIII

Hi

RE#1: what do you mean extactly?
RE#2: The databse should be design to store a least 10-15 billion rows of data (some tables only).

RE#3: Only PRIMARY KEY has been set to identity, not unique and ROWGUID has been set to default: Newid(),unique. The ROWGUID column is used for database replication!


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Guy Hengel [angelIII / a3]Billing EngineerCommented:
>RE#1: what do you mean extactly?
it's not relevant for performance.

it's relevant for ORDER BY, as NEWSEQUENTIALID() generates sequential id values (like the identity).


>RE#2: The databse should be design to store a least 10-15 billion rows of data (some tables only).
check out the max values for int/bigint respectively, and you know what you have to choose.

>RE#3: Only PRIMARY KEY has been set to identity, not unique
a primary key is unique by definition.

so, you do have 2 unique fields. why?
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KhouAuthor Commented:
Bigint max length is "9,223,372,036,854,775,807" and it was choosen for performance reasons over GUID and mainly because it fits the requirements.

GUID is not required other than for use with replication!

If GUID did not degrade performance, I would use it aswell. if it doe snot degrade much performance, it might be considered.
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Guy Hengel [angelIII / a3]Billing EngineerCommented:
>If GUID did not degrade performance

note that by having 2 unique fields, you have 2 unique indexes, so you require the performance for a bigint + GUID field. it would sound logical to me that having both fields is less performant than only having one of them.

as you REQUIRE the GUID field for the replication, my choice would be GUID...
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KhouAuthor Commented:
Problem I have with using GUID as primary key is that it will be a clustered/index and make searching slow.






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Guy Hengel [angelIII / a3]Billing EngineerCommented:
a primary key is not forcefully to be a clustered index. it's just a matter of creating another index clustered first, then with the GUI the PK will not be clustered.

anyhow, how comes that "searching" is slow by having the pk clustered?
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KhouAuthor Commented:
   
To answer your question , why was the rowguid column set to unique?
 
 because GUID does not guarantee the value would be unique.  
---
"guids are defined as a globally unique identifier. While small positive integers may be unique locally, they do not sufficiently guarantee uniqueness across the range of all possible weblogs." REF: http://validator.w3.org/feed/docs/warning/NotSufficientlyUnique.html
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Guy Hengel [angelIII / a3]Billing EngineerCommented:
> because GUID does not guarantee the value would be unique.  
interesting, AFAIK, the NEWID() does return (globally) unique values...
as the GUID, for sql server, is returned from an API that includes the MAC address in the GUID value + timestamp + random value.
note: the MAC address IS globally unique on itself, so each sql server generating guid values cannot generate non-unique values.

I don't know what exactly they take the information from, but...

http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms189786.aspx
Each GUID generated by using NEWSEQUENTIALID() is unique on that computer. GUIDs generated by using NEWSEQUENTIALID() are unique across multiple computers only if the source computer has a network card.

and also the general info:
http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms190215.aspx
The main use for a GUID is for assigning an identifier that must be unique in a network that has many computers at many sites.


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KhouAuthor Commented:
"At 16 bytes, the uniqueidentifier data type is relatively larger than other data types, such as 4-byte integers. This means indexes that are built using uniqueidentifier keys might be relatively slower than indexes using an int key."
ref: http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms190215.aspx






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Guy Hengel [angelIII / a3]Billing EngineerCommented:
yes, that's right, but not what I was speaking of.

if you compare:
table a (pk bigint)
with
table b (pk uniqueidentifier)

then, yes, table a "wins"

however, you have implemented:
tablec (pk bigint, unique_key uniqueidentifier)
which is slower than both table a and table b, because you have to maintain 2 unique fields

of course,
child_table_a ( fk_field bigint )
will be better than:
child_table_b ( fk_field uniqueidentifier )
child_table_c ( fk_field uniqueidentifier )

however, child_table_c will not loose as much performance as table_a gains over table_c ...

hope this explained...

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KhouAuthor Commented:
@angelIII:

------
yes, that's right, but not what I was speaking of.

if you compare:
table a (pk bigint)
with
table b (pk uniqueidentifier)

then, yes, table a "wins"
------

Yes this is what im saying, its faster! I can see your point,

however, this is the actual code I used to create the table

create table Person.Account (
    AccountID bigint identity not null,
    Password varchar(128) not null,
    AccountNumber int not null unique,
    rowguid uniqueidentifier ROWGUIDCOL default (newid()) not null unique,
    ModifiedDate datetime default (getdate()) not null,
    constraint PK_Account primary key (AccountID)
);


After creating the table, I had a look at the code in SQL Server Management, and it shows this

CREATE TABLE [Person].[Account](
    [AccountID] [bigint] IDENTITY(1,1) NOT NULL,
    [Password] [varchar](128) NOT NULL,
    [AccountNumber] [int] NOT NULL,
    [rowguid] [uniqueidentifier] ROWGUIDCOL  NOT NULL DEFAULT (newid()),
    [ModifiedDate] [datetime] NOT NULL DEFAULT (getdate()),
 CONSTRAINT [PK_Account] PRIMARY KEY CLUSTERED
)

keyword "Unique" was moved, in physical table.

So does that mean the tables are ok? or prefer otherwise.
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Guy Hengel [angelIII / a3]Billing EngineerCommented:
>keyword "Unique" was moved, in physical table.
the accountnumber was made the primary key, however I don't see why the unique was gone from rowguid. although the default values are unique, you could always update a rows with a guid value from another row...

apart from that, have the AccountNumber as primary key does make sense, as it's value is probably needed for human-readable display. the rowguid, although also unique and required for the replication, is not so good for "humans".

the design is fine.

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KhouAuthor Commented:
Yes, I would agree, AccountNumber might make more sense as the Primary Key!

The account number is a 16 digit number,and is unique thoughtout the entire world!
First digit is the system number
Next 4 digits is the country code,
Next 10 digits is the customer's account number,
Last  digit is the check code

Therefore this database can handle multiple systems and each system can handle "9,999,999,999" users per country. I think the accountnumbering system was design properly aswell.

If we make the AccountNumber the primary key then there will be no need for AccountID.

As for Profile table? and ProfileID being the primary key?
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KhouAuthor Commented:
 Note:
Account table is used to control users account "Authorization and Authentication"

Profile table is used to control the users profile!

It allows two level of control over 1 user account.
 

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KhouAuthor Commented:
Hi angelIII:

I just read this
http://www.informit.com/articles/article.aspx?p=25862&seqNum=5

GUID is not so bad? I still need to create it either way.


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Guy Hengel [angelIII / a3]Billing EngineerCommented:
read the last sentence: the overhead for the larger size is the main problem ?!
it's not that big, but still the most important.
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KhouAuthor Commented:
its performance more than size.

And reading that test from informit it doesn't loose much performance!

In the current design, it gets the best from both world!

making the uniqueidentity the primary key is what worries me.
 
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KhouAuthor Commented:
My testing/research shows that

If using UNIQUEIDENTIFIER as the Primary key then use it with NEWSEQUENTIALID() not NEWID() and this should be fine for the primary key!


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