We help IT Professionals succeed at work.

# rotate hyperbola for multilateration

on
844 Views
page 3;

To plot a rotated hyperbola, it is neces-
sary to do a coordinate transformation. The
transformation used to plot the hyperbola cor-
responding to a particular baseline takes points
calculated in an x, y coordinate system in which
the baseline is vertically upward (in which the
hyperbolae are easy to calculate), and rotates
the points clockwise by an angle ΒΈ so that the y22
axis is correctly oriented with the actual base-
line in the networks x, y coordinate system. It
then offsets the resulting points away from be-
ing centered around (0,0) to the center (x0, y0)
of the actual baseline. From a carefully drawn
sketch of the geometry of the (22) to (2) trans-
formation, determine the matrix expression for
onverting (x22, y22) values to (x2, y2) values, and
confirm that it is the same as used in the trans-
form program
You need to find the matrix co-
efficients so that:
x2      a11  a12      y22
y2  =  a21  a22 =  x22

Can someone please explain this to me... why do we need to rotate the hyperbola?

toa.pdf
Comment
Watch Question

## View Solution Only

CERTIFIED EXPERT

Commented:
"why do we need to rotate the hyperbola?"

I took a quick look at the attached text.

It's been a long time since I've done this kind calculation, but it seems that the purpose in rotating the hyperbola is to be able to calculate the Time Of Arrival (TOA) at different points in a 3D space.  Let's see what others say.

Research Engineer - Electrical
CERTIFIED EXPERT

Commented:
If you have four RX points, then you will have six possible hyperbolae.

If you pick your point conveniently (at the corners of square/rectangle), then four of
your hyperbolae will be aligned with the axes, and will not require rotation.
These four may be adequate to solve the position problem.

The hyberbolae associated with the RX pairs on the diagonals do have to be rotated.
But they may not be necessary.

What are the requirements for the program you are writing?
Do you need to plot the hyperbolae??

Commented:
why is it easier to calculate when the baseline is upward?

Commented:
This is all part of the writing up part of the report and theory and I also need to understand the concept in for the presentation if asked.

=> If you have four RX points, then you will have six possible hyperbolae.
How do you know this?

Commented:
If you have four RX points do you not have 3 possible hyperbolas that is 1 hyperbola per two readers?

dTOA12
dTOA23
dTOA34

Research Engineer - Electrical
CERTIFIED EXPERT

Commented:
One per pair:  12  13  14  23  24  34

Commented:
From the tutorial it states 'why is it easier to calculate when the baseline is upward? '
why is this?

=> he hyberbolae associated with the RX pairs on the diagonals do have to be rotated.
what are the diagonals, what does this mean?
CERTIFIED EXPERT

Commented:
"What are the diagonals?"

The asymptotes

See the diagram about 1/3 down in http://home.windstream.net/okrebs/page63.html

Commented:
=>so the hyperbolas associated with the RX pairs on the assymptotes do have to be rotated
why is this?
Research Engineer - Electrical
CERTIFIED EXPERT
Commented:
This one is on us!
(Get your first solution completely free - no credit card required)
Research Engineer - Electrical
CERTIFIED EXPERT

Commented:
Sorry the diagonals I was referring to are formed by RX's on opposite corners the square:

(0,0) vs (10,10)    and      (0,10) vs (10,0)

Commented:
ok I understand... so if aligned on axis this is fine because you can get it into standard form.
If not alligned with axis we need to arrange rotation...

So if the readers are on the co-ordinates as per the drawing (0,0) (10,10) (0,10) and (10,0). these are alligned with the co axes ....

but when are they not alligned with the axes... is this when we introduce a z axes?

by diagonals, do you mean the hyperbola formed between (0,0) and (0,10) etc.?
Research Engineer - Electrical
CERTIFIED EXPERT

Commented:
You have to take the RX's in pairs.
If the line through pair of RX's is aligned with either axis, the the hyperbola will be also.

So   [(0,0)  (0,10)]     [(0,0)  (10,0)]     [(10,0)  (10,10)]    [(0,10)  (10,10)]
give aligned hyperbolae.

And   [(0,0)  (10,10)]     [(0,10)  (10,0)]   give rotated ones.
The lines through [(0,0)  (10,10)]   and   [(0,10)  (10,0)]   are the diagonals of the square RX layout.

This is the sort of rotation (in 2D) that they are talking about in the tutorial you listed
at the top of this question.  Look at Figures 5 and 6.

For 3D, there is another type of rotation required.  You have to rotate the hyperbola
around its axis.

Commented:
So if I have all the 4 readers on the floor this is in 2d but if I raise one of them to the roof this will be in 3d.
Research Engineer - Electrical
CERTIFIED EXPERT

Commented:
You can have all the readers on the floor, and still let the TX move in 3D.
You can solve for the 3D position of TX using a variety of methods.

But if all the RX's are in a plane, you will not be able to tell the difference
between (X,Y,+Z) and (X,Y,-Z).

If all the RX are at ground level, and the TX can not go below ground, then you
don't have to worry about the ambiguity.

Commented:
Ah now I understand that's interesting... so basically we never need to worry about the ambiguity because we do not go below ground so it will always be +Z.

Finally

=> if all the RX's are in a plane

From http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plane_(mathematics) I understand this as the RX's on the floor in one plane or RX's on the wall another plane... am I understanding this correctly?
Research Engineer - Electrical
CERTIFIED EXPERT

Commented:
Three points (or three RX's) define a plane unless they happen to lie on a line.

Walls, floors, ceilings, ramps, and slanted roofs are all planes.

Three RX's on the floor define a horizontal plane.

Two RX's on the floor, and one not on the floor define a plane too.

Commented:

Gain unlimited access to on-demand training courses with an Experts Exchange subscription.

###### Why Experts Exchange?

Experts Exchange always has the answer, or at the least points me in the correct direction! It is like having another employee that is extremely experienced.

Jim Murphy
Programmer at Smart IT Solutions

Deciding to stick with EE.

Mohamed Asif

Being involved with EE helped me to grow personally and professionally.

Carl Webster
CTP, Sr Infrastructure Consultant
###### Did You Know?

We've partnered with two important charities to provide clean water and computer science education to those who need it most. READ MORE

Connect with Certified Experts to gain insight and support on specific technology challenges including:

• Troubleshooting
• Research
• Professional Opinions
Unlock the solution to this question.

Experts Exchange is the only place where you can interact directly with leading experts in the technology field. Become a member today and access the collective knowledge of thousands of technology experts.