Trying to animate sprite using DirectX9 and C++

In this program, I create a window and display a cat walking back and forth between the screen using a left and right tileset of bitmaps. Also, I am trying to control two caveman sprites as follows:
- If you press the Right key, cavemanRight.bmp is loaded and the caveman runs to the right.
- If you press the Left key, cavemanLeft.bmp is loaded and the caveman runs to the left.
 
I would like to know why am I only able to display cavemanRight.bmp.
Thanks!

#include "game.h"
 
LPDIRECT3DTEXTURE9 cat_left_image;
LPDIRECT3DTEXTURE9 cat_right_image;
LPDIRECT3DTEXTURE9 caveman_left_image;
LPDIRECT3DTEXTURE9 caveman_right_image;
 
SPRITE catLeft;
SPRITE catRight;
SPRITE cavemanLeft;
SPRITE cavemanRight;
 
LPDIRECT3DSURFACE9 back;
LPD3DXSPRITE sprite_handler;
 
HRESULT result;
 
//timing variable
long start = GetTickCount();
 
//initializes the game
int Game_Init(HWND hwnd)
{
	//set random number seed
	srand(time_t(NULL));
 
	//create sprite handler object
	result = D3DXCreateSprite(d3ddev, &sprite_handler);
	if (result != D3D_OK)
		return 0;
 
	//load the background image
	back = LoadSurface("background.bmp", NULL);
 
	//load texture with "pink" as the transparent color
	cat_left_image = LoadTexture("catLeft.bmp", D3DCOLOR_XRGB(255,0,255));
	if (cat_left_image == NULL)
		return 0;
	
	// initialize catLeft's properties
	catLeft.x = 96;
	catLeft.y = 150;
	catLeft.width = 96;
	catLeft.height = 96;
	catLeft.curframe = 0;
	catLeft.lastframe = 5;
	catLeft.animdelay = 2;
	catLeft.animcount = 0;
	catLeft.movex = 8;
	catLeft.movey = 0;
	
	//load texture with "pink" as the transparent color
	cat_right_image = LoadTexture("catRight.bmp", D3DCOLOR_XRGB(255,0,255));
	if (cat_right_image == NULL)
		return 0;
 
	// initialize catRight's properties
	catRight.x = 96;
	catRight.y = 150;
	catRight.width = 96;
	catRight.height = 96;
	catRight.curframe = 0;
	catRight.lastframe = 5;
	catRight.animdelay = 2;
	catRight.animcount = 0;
	catRight.movex = 8;
	catRight.movey = 0;
 
	//load texture with "pink" as the transparent color
	caveman_left_image = LoadTexture("cavemanLeft.bmp", D3DCOLOR_XRGB(255,0,255));
	if (caveman_left_image == NULL)
		return 0;
 
	//initialize cavemanLeft's properties
	cavemanLeft.x = 100;
	cavemanLeft.y = 180;
	cavemanLeft.width = 50;
	cavemanLeft.height = 64;
	cavemanLeft.curframe = 1;
	cavemanLeft.lastframe = 11;
	cavemanLeft.animdelay = 3;
	cavemanLeft.animcount = 0;
	cavemanLeft.movex = 5;
	cavemanLeft.movey = 0;
 
	//load texture with "pink" as the transparent color
	caveman_right_image = LoadTexture("cavemanRight.bmp", D3DCOLOR_XRGB(255,0,255));
	if (caveman_right_image == NULL)
		return 0;
 
	//initialize cavemanLeft's properties
	cavemanRight.x = 100;
	cavemanRight.y = 180;
	cavemanRight.width = 50;
	cavemanRight.height = 64;
	cavemanRight.curframe = 1;
	cavemanRight.lastframe = 11;
	cavemanRight.animdelay = 3;
	cavemanRight.animcount = 0;
	cavemanRight.movex = 5;
	cavemanRight.movey = 0;
 
	//return okay
	return 1;
}
 
//the main game loop
void Game_Run(HWND hwnd)
{
	//make sure the Direct3D device is valid
	if (d3ddev == NULL)
		return;
 
	//after short delay, ready for next frame?
	//this keeps the game running at a steady frame rate
	if (GetTickCount() - start >= 30)
	{
		//reset timing
		start = GetTickCount();
 
		//move cat to the left
		catLeft.x += catLeft.movex;
		catLeft.y += catLeft.movey;
 
		//"warp" the sprite at screen edges
		if (catLeft.x > SCREEN_WIDTH - catLeft.width)
			catLeft.movex *= -1;
		else if (catLeft.x < 0)
		{
			catLeft.movex *= -1;
			catLeft.x += catLeft.movex;
		}
		
		//move cat to the right
		catRight.x += catRight.movex;
		catRight.y += catRight.movey;
 
		//"warp" the sprite at screen edges
		if (catRight.x > SCREEN_WIDTH - catRight.width)
			catRight.movex *= -1;
		else if (catRight.x < 0)
		{
			catRight.movex *= -1;
			catRight.x += catRight.movex;
		}
 
		//move caveman to the right
		if (KEY_DOWN(VK_RIGHT))
		{
			cavemanRight.x += cavemanRight.movex;
			cavemanRight.y += cavemanRight.movey;
		}
 
		//move caveman to the left
		if (KEY_DOWN(VK_LEFT))
		{
			cavemanRight.x -= cavemanRight.movex;
			cavemanRight.y -= cavemanRight.movey;
		}
 
		//"warp" the sprite at screen edges
		if (cavemanRight.x > SCREEN_WIDTH - cavemanRight.width)
		{
			cavemanRight.x = SCREEN_WIDTH - cavemanRight.width;
		}
		else if (cavemanRight.x < 0)
		{
			cavemanRight.x = 0;
		}
 
		//has animation delay reached threshold?
		if (++cavemanRight.animcount > cavemanRight.animdelay)
		{
			//reset counter
			cavemanRight.animcount = 0;
 
			//animate the sprite
			if (++cavemanRight.curframe > cavemanRight.lastframe)
				cavemanRight.curframe = 1;
		}
		
		if (++cavemanLeft.animcount > cavemanLeft.animdelay)
		{
			//reset counter
			cavemanLeft.animcount = 0;
 
			//animate the sprite
			if (++cavemanLeft.curframe > cavemanLeft.lastframe)
				cavemanLeft.curframe = 1;
		}
 
		if (++catRight.animcount > catRight.animdelay)
		{
			//reset counter
			catRight.animcount = 0;
 
			//animate the sprite
			if (++catRight.curframe > catRight.lastframe)
				catRight.curframe = 1;
		}
 
		if (++catLeft.animcount > catLeft.animdelay)
		{
			//reset counter
			catLeft.animcount = 0;
 
			//animate the sprite
			if (++catLeft.curframe > catLeft.lastframe)
				catLeft.curframe = 1;
		}
	}
 
	//start rendering
	if (d3ddev->BeginScene())
	{
		//erase the entire background
		d3ddev->StretchRect(back, NULL, backbuffer, NULL, D3DTEXF_NONE);
 
		//start sprite handler
		sprite_handler->Begin(D3DXSPRITE_ALPHABLEND);
 
		//create vector to update caveman position
		D3DXVECTOR3 cavemanRightPosition((float)cavemanRight.x, (float)cavemanRight.y, 0);
		D3DXVECTOR3 cavemanLeftPosition((float)cavemanLeft.x, (float)cavemanLeft.y, 0);
		D3DXVECTOR3 catRightPosition ((float)catRight.x, (float)catRight.y, 0);
		D3DXVECTOR3 catLeftPosition ((float)catLeft.x, (float)catLeft.y, 0);
 
		//configure the rect for the source tile
		RECT catSrcRect;
		RECT cavemanLeftSrcRect;
		RECT cavemanRightSrcRect;
 
		int catColumns = 6;
		int cavemanColumns = 8; 
 
		catSrcRect.left = (catLeft.curframe % catColumns) * catLeft.width;
		catSrcRect.top = (catLeft.curframe / catColumns) * catLeft.height;
		catSrcRect.right = catSrcRect.left + catLeft.width;
		catSrcRect.bottom = catSrcRect.top + catLeft.height;
 
		cavemanLeftSrcRect.left = (cavemanLeft.curframe % cavemanColumns) * cavemanLeft.width;
		cavemanLeftSrcRect.top = (cavemanLeft.curframe / cavemanColumns) * cavemanLeft.height;
		cavemanLeftSrcRect.right = cavemanLeftSrcRect.left + cavemanLeft.width;
		cavemanLeftSrcRect.bottom = cavemanLeftSrcRect.top + cavemanLeft.height;
 
		cavemanRightSrcRect.left = (cavemanRight.curframe % cavemanColumns) * cavemanRight.width;
		cavemanRightSrcRect.top = (cavemanRight.curframe / cavemanColumns) * cavemanRight.height;
		cavemanRightSrcRect.right = cavemanRightSrcRect.left + cavemanRight.width;
		cavemanRightSrcRect.bottom = cavemanRightSrcRect.top + cavemanRight.height;
 
		//draw the sprite
		if (cavemanRight.movex > 0)
		{
			sprite_handler->Draw(
				caveman_right_image,
				&cavemanRightSrcRect,
				NULL,
				&cavemanRightPosition,
				D3DCOLOR_XRGB(255,255,255));
		}
		else if (cavemanRight.movex < 0)
		{
			sprite_handler->Draw(
				caveman_left_image,
				&cavemanLeftSrcRect,
				NULL,
				&cavemanLeftPosition,
				D3DCOLOR_XRGB(255,255,255));
		}
 
		if (catLeft.movex > 0)
		{
			sprite_handler->Draw(
				cat_right_image,
				&catSrcRect,
				NULL,
				&catRightPosition,
				D3DCOLOR_XRGB(255,255,255));
		}
		else if (catLeft.movex < 0)
		{
			sprite_handler->Draw(
				cat_left_image,
				&catSrcRect,
				NULL,
				&catLeftPosition,
				D3DCOLOR_XRGB(255,255,255));
		}
 
		//stop drawing
		sprite_handler->End();
 
		//stop rendering
		d3ddev->EndScene();
	}
 
	//display the back buffer on the screen
	d3ddev->Present(NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL);
 
	//check for escape key (to exit program)
	if (KEY_DOWN(VK_ESCAPE))
		PostMessage(hwnd, WM_DESTROY, 0, 0);
}
 
//frees memory and cleans up before the game ends
void Game_End(HWND hwnd)
{
 
	if (caveman_left_image != NULL)
		caveman_left_image->Release();
 
	if (caveman_right_image != NULL)
		caveman_right_image->Release();
 
	if (cat_left_image != NULL)
		cat_left_image->Release();
 
	if (cat_right_image != NULL)
		cat_right_image->Release();
 
	if (back != NULL)
		back->Release();
 
	if (sprite_handler != NULL)
		sprite_handler->Release();
 
}

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background.bmp
catLeft.bmp
catRight.bmp
cavemanLeft.bmp
cavemanRight.bmp
psycho_bloodAsked:
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psycho_bloodConnect With a Mentor Author Commented:
The attached code shows how I fixed my original problem. The program is not perfect but it works.
#include "game.h"
 
LPDIRECT3DTEXTURE9 cat_left_image;
LPDIRECT3DTEXTURE9 cat_right_image;
LPDIRECT3DTEXTURE9 caveman_left_image;
LPDIRECT3DTEXTURE9 caveman_right_image;
 
SPRITE catLeft;
SPRITE catRight;
SPRITE cavemanLeft;
SPRITE cavemanRight;
 
LPDIRECT3DSURFACE9 back;
LPD3DXSPRITE sprite_handler;
 
HRESULT result;
 
//timing variable
long start = GetTickCount();
 
//initializes the game
int Game_Init(HWND hwnd)
{
	//set random number seed
	srand(time_t(NULL));
 
	//create sprite handler object
	result = D3DXCreateSprite(d3ddev, &sprite_handler);
	if (result != D3D_OK)
		return 0;
 
	//load the background image
	back = LoadSurface("background.bmp", NULL);
 
	//load texture with "pink" as the transparent color
	cat_left_image = LoadTexture("catLeft.bmp", D3DCOLOR_XRGB(255,0,255));
	if (cat_left_image == NULL)
		return 0;
	
	// initialize catLeft's properties
	catLeft.x = 96;
	catLeft.y = 150;
	catLeft.width = 96;
	catLeft.height = 96;
	catLeft.curframe = 0;
	catLeft.lastframe = 5;
	catLeft.animdelay = 2;
	catLeft.animcount = 0;
	catLeft.movex = 8;
	catLeft.movey = 0;
	
	//load texture with "pink" as the transparent color
	cat_right_image = LoadTexture("catRight.bmp", D3DCOLOR_XRGB(255,0,255));
	if (cat_right_image == NULL)
		return 0;
 
	// initialize catRight's properties
	catRight.x = 96;
	catRight.y = 150;
	catRight.width = 96;
	catRight.height = 96;
	catRight.curframe = 0;
	catRight.lastframe = 5;
	catRight.animdelay = 2;
	catRight.animcount = 0;
	catRight.movex = 8;
	catRight.movey = 0;
 
	//load texture with "pink" as the transparent color
	caveman_left_image = LoadTexture("cavemanLeft.bmp", D3DCOLOR_XRGB(255,0,255));
	if (caveman_left_image == NULL)
		return 0;
 
	//initialize cavemanLeft's properties
	cavemanLeft.x = 100;
	cavemanLeft.y = 180;
	cavemanLeft.width = 50;
	cavemanLeft.height = 64;
	cavemanLeft.curframe = 1;
	cavemanLeft.lastframe = 11;
	cavemanLeft.animdelay = 3;
	cavemanLeft.animcount = 0;
	cavemanLeft.movex = 5;
	cavemanLeft.movey = 0;
 
	//load texture with "pink" as the transparent color
	caveman_right_image = LoadTexture("cavemanRight.bmp", D3DCOLOR_XRGB(255,0,255));
	if (caveman_right_image == NULL)
		return 0;
 
	//initialize cavemanLeft's properties
	cavemanRight.x = 100;
	cavemanRight.y = 180;
	cavemanRight.width = 50;
	cavemanRight.height = 64;
	cavemanRight.curframe = 1;
	cavemanRight.lastframe = 11;
	cavemanRight.animdelay = 3;
	cavemanRight.animcount = 0;
	cavemanRight.movex = 5;
	cavemanRight.movey = 0;
 
	//return okay
	return 1;
}
 
//the main game loop
void Game_Run(HWND hwnd)
{
	//make sure the Direct3D device is valid
	if (d3ddev == NULL)
		return;
 
	//after short delay, ready for next frame?
	//this keeps the game running at a steady frame rate
	if (GetTickCount() - start >= 30)
	{
		//reset timing
		start = GetTickCount();
 
		//move cat to the left
		catLeft.x += catLeft.movex;
		catLeft.y += catLeft.movey;
 
		//"warp" the sprite at screen edges
		if (catLeft.x > SCREEN_WIDTH - catLeft.width)
			catLeft.movex *= -1;
		else if (catLeft.x < 0)
		{
			catLeft.movex *= -1;
			catLeft.x += catLeft.movex;
		}
		
		//move cat to the right
		catRight.x += catRight.movex;
		catRight.y += catRight.movey;
 
		//"warp" the sprite at screen edges
		if (catRight.x > SCREEN_WIDTH - catRight.width)
			catRight.movex *= -1;
		else if (catRight.x < 0)
		{
			catRight.movex *= -1;
			catRight.x += catRight.movex;
		}
 
		//move caveman to the right
		if (KEY_DOWN(VK_RIGHT))
		{
			cavemanRight.x += cavemanRight.movex;
			cavemanRight.y += cavemanRight.movey;
		}
 
		//move caveman to the left
		if (KEY_DOWN(VK_LEFT))
		{
			cavemanRight.x -= cavemanRight.movex;
			cavemanRight.y -= cavemanRight.movey;
		}
 
		//move caveman up
		if (KEY_DOWN(VK_UP))
		{
			cavemanRight.height += cavemanRight.movey;
			cavemanRight.y--;
		}
 
		//move caveman down
		if (KEY_DOWN(VK_DOWN))
		{
			cavemanRight.height -= cavemanRight.movey;
			cavemanRight.y++;
		}
 
		//"warp" the sprite at screen edges
		if (cavemanRight.x > SCREEN_WIDTH - cavemanRight.width)
		{
			cavemanRight.x = SCREEN_WIDTH - cavemanRight.width;
		}
		else if (cavemanRight.x < 0)
		{
			cavemanRight.x = 0;
		}
 
		if (cavemanRight.y > SCREEN_HEIGHT - cavemanRight.height)
		{
			cavemanRight.y = SCREEN_HEIGHT - cavemanRight.height;
		}
		else if (cavemanRight.y < 0)
		{
			cavemanRight.y = 0;
		}
 
		//move caveman to the right
		if (KEY_DOWN(VK_RIGHT))
		{
			cavemanLeft.x += cavemanLeft.movex;
			cavemanLeft.y += cavemanLeft.movey;
		}
 
		//move caveman to the left
		if (KEY_DOWN(VK_LEFT))
		{
			cavemanLeft.x -= cavemanLeft.movex;
			cavemanLeft.y -= cavemanLeft.movey;
		}
 
		//move caveman up
		if (KEY_DOWN(VK_UP))
		{
			cavemanLeft.height += cavemanLeft.movey;
			cavemanLeft.y--;
		}
 
		//move caveman down
		if (KEY_DOWN(VK_DOWN))
		{
			cavemanLeft.height -= cavemanLeft.movey;
			cavemanLeft.y++;
		}
 
		//"warp" the sprite at screen edges
		if (cavemanLeft.x > SCREEN_WIDTH - cavemanLeft.width)
		{
			cavemanLeft.x = SCREEN_WIDTH - cavemanLeft.width;
		}
		else if (cavemanLeft.x < 0)
		{
			cavemanLeft.x = 0;
		}
 
		if (cavemanLeft.y > SCREEN_HEIGHT - cavemanLeft.height)
		{
			cavemanLeft.y = SCREEN_HEIGHT - cavemanLeft.height;
		}
		else if (cavemanLeft.y < 0)
		{
			cavemanLeft.y = 0;
		}
 
 
		//has animation delay reached threshold?
		if (++cavemanRight.animcount > cavemanRight.animdelay)
		{
			//reset counter
			cavemanRight.animcount = 0;
 
			//animate the sprite
			if (++cavemanRight.curframe > cavemanRight.lastframe)
				cavemanRight.curframe = 1;
		}
		
		if (++cavemanLeft.animcount > cavemanLeft.animdelay)
		{
			//reset counter
			cavemanLeft.animcount = 0;
 
			//animate the sprite
			if (++cavemanLeft.curframe > cavemanLeft.lastframe)
				cavemanLeft.curframe = 1;
		}
 
		if (++catRight.animcount > catRight.animdelay)
		{
			//reset counter
			catRight.animcount = 0;
 
			//animate the sprite
			if (++catRight.curframe > catRight.lastframe)
				catRight.curframe = 1;
		}
 
		if (++catLeft.animcount > catLeft.animdelay)
		{
			//reset counter
			catLeft.animcount = 0;
 
			//animate the sprite
			if (++catLeft.curframe > catLeft.lastframe)
				catLeft.curframe = 1;
		}
	}
 
	//start rendering
	if (d3ddev->BeginScene())
	{
		//erase the entire background
		d3ddev->StretchRect(back, NULL, backbuffer, NULL, D3DTEXF_NONE);
 
		//start sprite handler
		sprite_handler->Begin(D3DXSPRITE_ALPHABLEND);
 
		//create vector to update caveman position
		D3DXVECTOR3 cavemanRightPosition((float)cavemanRight.x, (float)cavemanRight.y, 0);
		D3DXVECTOR3 cavemanLeftPosition((float)cavemanLeft.x, (float)cavemanLeft.y, 0);
		D3DXVECTOR3 catRightPosition ((float)catRight.x, (float)catRight.y, 0);
		D3DXVECTOR3 catLeftPosition ((float)catLeft.x, (float)catLeft.y, 0);
 
		//configure the rect for the source tile
		RECT catSrcRect;
		RECT cavemanLeftSrcRect;
		RECT cavemanRightSrcRect;
 
		int catColumns = 6;
		int cavemanColumns = 8; 
 
		catSrcRect.left = (catLeft.curframe % catColumns) * catLeft.width;
		catSrcRect.top = (catLeft.curframe / catColumns) * catLeft.height;
		catSrcRect.right = catSrcRect.left + catLeft.width;
		catSrcRect.bottom = catSrcRect.top + catLeft.height;
 
		cavemanLeftSrcRect.left = (cavemanLeft.curframe % cavemanColumns) * cavemanLeft.width;
		cavemanLeftSrcRect.top = (cavemanLeft.curframe / cavemanColumns) * cavemanLeft.height;
		cavemanLeftSrcRect.right = cavemanLeftSrcRect.left + cavemanLeft.width;
		cavemanLeftSrcRect.bottom = cavemanLeftSrcRect.top + cavemanLeft.height;
 
		cavemanRightSrcRect.left = (cavemanRight.curframe % cavemanColumns) * cavemanRight.width;
		cavemanRightSrcRect.top = (cavemanRight.curframe / cavemanColumns) * cavemanRight.height;
		cavemanRightSrcRect.right = cavemanRightSrcRect.left + cavemanRight.width;
		cavemanRightSrcRect.bottom = cavemanRightSrcRect.top + cavemanRight.height;
 
		//draw the sprite
		//if (cavemanRight.movex > 0)
		if (KEY_DOWN(VK_RIGHT)) //I need a better condition than this!
		{
			sprite_handler->Draw(
				caveman_right_image,
				&cavemanRightSrcRect,
				NULL,
				&cavemanRightPosition,
				D3DCOLOR_XRGB(255,255,255));
		}
		//else if (cavemanRight.movex < 0)
		else if (KEY_DOWN(VK_LEFT)) //I need a better condition than this!
		{
			sprite_handler->Draw(
				caveman_left_image,
				&cavemanLeftSrcRect,
				NULL,
				&cavemanLeftPosition,
				D3DCOLOR_XRGB(255,255,255));
		}
 
		if (catLeft.movex > 0)
		{
			sprite_handler->Draw(
				cat_right_image,
				&catSrcRect,
				NULL,
				&catRightPosition,
				D3DCOLOR_XRGB(255,255,255));
		}
		else if (catLeft.movex < 0)
		{
			sprite_handler->Draw(
				cat_left_image,
				&catSrcRect,
				NULL,
				&catLeftPosition,
				D3DCOLOR_XRGB(255,255,255));
		}
 
		//stop drawing
		sprite_handler->End();
 
		//stop rendering
		d3ddev->EndScene();
	}
 
	//display the back buffer on the screen
	d3ddev->Present(NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL);
 
	//check for escape key (to exit program)
	if (KEY_DOWN(VK_ESCAPE))
		PostMessage(hwnd, WM_DESTROY, 0, 0);
}
 
//frees memory and cleans up before the game ends
void Game_End(HWND hwnd)
{
 
	if (caveman_left_image != NULL)
		caveman_left_image->Release();
 
	if (caveman_right_image != NULL)
		caveman_right_image->Release();
 
	if (cat_left_image != NULL)
		cat_left_image->Release();
 
	if (cat_right_image != NULL)
		cat_right_image->Release();
 
	if (back != NULL)
		back->Release();
 
	if (sprite_handler != NULL)
		sprite_handler->Release();
 
}

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0
 
psycho_bloodAuthor Commented:
OK, I already fixed most of my problems and now I can move my caveman in all directions across the screen. However, when the caveman moves to the left is not properly drawn/animated. Could anyone take a look at my code below and tell me what I am doing wrong?
#include "game.h"
 
LPDIRECT3DTEXTURE9 cat_left_image;
LPDIRECT3DTEXTURE9 cat_right_image;
LPDIRECT3DTEXTURE9 caveman_left_image;
LPDIRECT3DTEXTURE9 caveman_right_image;
 
SPRITE catLeft;
SPRITE catRight;
SPRITE cavemanLeft;
SPRITE cavemanRight;
 
LPDIRECT3DSURFACE9 back;
LPD3DXSPRITE sprite_handler;
 
HRESULT result;
 
//timing variable
long start = GetTickCount();
 
//initializes the game
int Game_Init(HWND hwnd)
{
	//set random number seed
	srand(time_t(NULL));
 
	//create sprite handler object
	result = D3DXCreateSprite(d3ddev, &sprite_handler);
	if (result != D3D_OK)
		return 0;
 
	//load the background image
	back = LoadSurface("background.bmp", NULL);
 
	//load texture with "pink" as the transparent color
	cat_left_image = LoadTexture("catLeft.bmp", D3DCOLOR_XRGB(255,0,255));
	if (cat_left_image == NULL)
		return 0;
	
	// initialize catLeft's properties
	catLeft.x = 96;
	catLeft.y = 150;
	catLeft.width = 96;
	catLeft.height = 96;
	catLeft.curframe = 0;
	catLeft.lastframe = 5;
	catLeft.animdelay = 2;
	catLeft.animcount = 0;
	catLeft.movex = 8;
	catLeft.movey = 0;
	
	//load texture with "pink" as the transparent color
	cat_right_image = LoadTexture("catRight.bmp", D3DCOLOR_XRGB(255,0,255));
	if (cat_right_image == NULL)
		return 0;
 
	// initialize catRight's properties
	catRight.x = 96;
	catRight.y = 150;
	catRight.width = 96;
	catRight.height = 96;
	catRight.curframe = 0;
	catRight.lastframe = 5;
	catRight.animdelay = 2;
	catRight.animcount = 0;
	catRight.movex = 8;
	catRight.movey = 0;
 
	//load texture with "pink" as the transparent color
	caveman_left_image = LoadTexture("cavemanLeft.bmp", D3DCOLOR_XRGB(255,0,255));
	if (caveman_left_image == NULL)
		return 0;
 
	//initialize cavemanLeft's properties
	cavemanLeft.x = 100;
	cavemanLeft.y = 180;
	cavemanLeft.width = 50;
	cavemanLeft.height = 64;
	cavemanLeft.curframe = 1;
	cavemanLeft.lastframe = 11;
	cavemanLeft.animdelay = 3;
	cavemanLeft.animcount = 0;
	cavemanLeft.movex = 5;
	cavemanLeft.movey = 0;
 
	//load texture with "pink" as the transparent color
	caveman_right_image = LoadTexture("cavemanRight.bmp", D3DCOLOR_XRGB(255,0,255));
	if (caveman_right_image == NULL)
		return 0;
 
	//initialize cavemanLeft's properties
	cavemanRight.x = 100;
	cavemanRight.y = 180;
	cavemanRight.width = 50;
	cavemanRight.height = 64;
	cavemanRight.curframe = 1;
	cavemanRight.lastframe = 11;
	cavemanRight.animdelay = 3;
	cavemanRight.animcount = 0;
	cavemanRight.movex = 5;
	cavemanRight.movey = 0;
 
	//return okay
	return 1;
}
 
//the main game loop
void Game_Run(HWND hwnd)
{
	//make sure the Direct3D device is valid
	if (d3ddev == NULL)
		return;
 
	//after short delay, ready for next frame?
	//this keeps the game running at a steady frame rate
	if (GetTickCount() - start >= 30)
	{
		//reset timing
		start = GetTickCount();
 
		//move cat to the left
		catLeft.x += catLeft.movex;
		catLeft.y += catLeft.movey;
 
		//"warp" the sprite at screen edges
		if (catLeft.x > SCREEN_WIDTH - catLeft.width)
			catLeft.movex *= -1;
		else if (catLeft.x < 0)
		{
			catLeft.movex *= -1;
			catLeft.x += catLeft.movex;
		}
		
		//move cat to the right
		catRight.x += catRight.movex;
		catRight.y += catRight.movey;
 
		//"warp" the sprite at screen edges
		if (catRight.x > SCREEN_WIDTH - catRight.width)
			catRight.movex *= -1;
		else if (catRight.x < 0)
		{
			catRight.movex *= -1;
			catRight.x += catRight.movex;
		}
 
		//move caveman to the right
		if (KEY_DOWN(VK_RIGHT))
		{
			cavemanRight.x += cavemanRight.movex;
			cavemanRight.y += cavemanRight.movey;
		}
 
		//move caveman to the left
		if (KEY_DOWN(VK_LEFT))
		{
			cavemanRight.x -= cavemanRight.movex;
			cavemanRight.y -= cavemanRight.movey;
		}
 
		//move caveman up
		if (KEY_DOWN(VK_UP))
		{
			cavemanRight.height += cavemanRight.movey;
			cavemanRight.y--;
		}
 
		//move caveman down
		if (KEY_DOWN(VK_DOWN))
		{
			cavemanRight.height -= cavemanRight.movey;
			cavemanRight.y++;
		}
 
		//"warp" the sprite at screen edges
		if (cavemanRight.x > SCREEN_WIDTH - cavemanRight.width)
		{
			cavemanRight.x = SCREEN_WIDTH - cavemanRight.width;
		}
		else if (cavemanRight.x < 0)
		{
			cavemanRight.x = 0;
		}
 
		if (cavemanRight.y > SCREEN_HEIGHT - cavemanRight.height)
		{
			cavemanRight.y = SCREEN_HEIGHT - cavemanRight.height;
		}
		else if (cavemanRight.y < 0)
		{
			cavemanRight.y = 0;
		}
 
		//move caveman to the right
		if (KEY_DOWN(VK_RIGHT))
		{
			cavemanLeft.x += cavemanLeft.movex;
			cavemanLeft.y += cavemanLeft.movey;
		}
 
		//move caveman to the left
		if (KEY_DOWN(VK_LEFT))
		{
			cavemanLeft.x -= cavemanLeft.movex;
			cavemanLeft.y -= cavemanLeft.movey;
		}
 
		//move caveman up
		if (KEY_DOWN(VK_UP))
		{
			cavemanLeft.height += cavemanLeft.movey;
			cavemanLeft.y--;
		}
 
		//move caveman down
		if (KEY_DOWN(VK_DOWN))
		{
			cavemanLeft.height -= cavemanLeft.movey;
			cavemanLeft.y++;
		}
 
		//"warp" the sprite at screen edges
		if (cavemanLeft.x > SCREEN_WIDTH - cavemanLeft.width)
		{
			cavemanLeft.x = SCREEN_WIDTH - cavemanLeft.width;
		}
		else if (cavemanLeft.x < 0)
		{
			cavemanLeft.x = 0;
		}
 
		if (cavemanLeft.y > SCREEN_HEIGHT - cavemanLeft.height)
		{
			cavemanLeft.y = SCREEN_HEIGHT - cavemanLeft.height;
		}
		else if (cavemanLeft.y < 0)
		{
			cavemanLeft.y = 0;
		}
 
 
		//has animation delay reached threshold?
		if (++cavemanRight.animcount > cavemanRight.animdelay)
		{
			//reset counter
			cavemanRight.animcount = 0;
 
			//animate the sprite
			if (++cavemanRight.curframe > cavemanRight.lastframe)
				cavemanRight.curframe = 1;
		}
		
		if (++cavemanLeft.animcount > cavemanLeft.animdelay)
		{
			//reset counter
			cavemanLeft.animcount = 0;
 
			//animate the sprite
			if (++cavemanLeft.curframe > cavemanLeft.lastframe)
				cavemanLeft.curframe = 1;
		}
 
		if (++catRight.animcount > catRight.animdelay)
		{
			//reset counter
			catRight.animcount = 0;
 
			//animate the sprite
			if (++catRight.curframe > catRight.lastframe)
				catRight.curframe = 1;
		}
 
		if (++catLeft.animcount > catLeft.animdelay)
		{
			//reset counter
			catLeft.animcount = 0;
 
			//animate the sprite
			if (++catLeft.curframe > catLeft.lastframe)
				catLeft.curframe = 1;
		}
	}
 
	//start rendering
	if (d3ddev->BeginScene())
	{
		//erase the entire background
		d3ddev->StretchRect(back, NULL, backbuffer, NULL, D3DTEXF_NONE);
 
		//start sprite handler
		sprite_handler->Begin(D3DXSPRITE_ALPHABLEND);
 
		//create vector to update caveman position
		D3DXVECTOR3 cavemanRightPosition((float)cavemanRight.x, (float)cavemanRight.y, 0);
		D3DXVECTOR3 cavemanLeftPosition((float)cavemanLeft.x, (float)cavemanLeft.y, 0);
		D3DXVECTOR3 catRightPosition ((float)catRight.x, (float)catRight.y, 0);
		D3DXVECTOR3 catLeftPosition ((float)catLeft.x, (float)catLeft.y, 0);
 
		//configure the rect for the source tile
		RECT catSrcRect;
		RECT cavemanLeftSrcRect;
		RECT cavemanRightSrcRect;
 
		int catColumns = 6;
		int cavemanColumns = 8; 
 
		catSrcRect.left = (catLeft.curframe % catColumns) * catLeft.width;
		catSrcRect.top = (catLeft.curframe / catColumns) * catLeft.height;
		catSrcRect.right = catSrcRect.left + catLeft.width;
		catSrcRect.bottom = catSrcRect.top + catLeft.height;
 
		cavemanLeftSrcRect.left = (cavemanLeft.curframe % cavemanColumns) * cavemanLeft.width;
		cavemanLeftSrcRect.top = (cavemanLeft.curframe / cavemanColumns) * cavemanLeft.height;
		cavemanLeftSrcRect.right = cavemanLeftSrcRect.left + cavemanLeft.width;
		cavemanLeftSrcRect.bottom = cavemanLeftSrcRect.top + cavemanLeft.height;
 
		cavemanRightSrcRect.left = (cavemanRight.curframe % cavemanColumns) * cavemanRight.width;
		cavemanRightSrcRect.top = (cavemanRight.curframe / cavemanColumns) * cavemanRight.height;
		cavemanRightSrcRect.right = cavemanRightSrcRect.left + cavemanRight.width;
		cavemanRightSrcRect.bottom = cavemanRightSrcRect.top + cavemanRight.height;
 
		//draw the sprite
		//if (cavemanRight.movex > 0)
		if (KEY_DOWN(VK_RIGHT)) //I need a better condition than this!
		{
			sprite_handler->Draw(
				caveman_right_image,
				&cavemanRightSrcRect,
				NULL,
				&cavemanRightPosition,
				D3DCOLOR_XRGB(255,255,255));
		}
		//else if (cavemanRight.movex < 0)
		else if (KEY_DOWN(VK_LEFT)) //I need a better condition than this!
		{
			sprite_handler->Draw(
				caveman_left_image,
				&cavemanLeftSrcRect,
				NULL,
				&cavemanLeftPosition,
				D3DCOLOR_XRGB(255,255,255));
		}
 
		if (catLeft.movex > 0)
		{
			sprite_handler->Draw(
				cat_right_image,
				&catSrcRect,
				NULL,
				&catRightPosition,
				D3DCOLOR_XRGB(255,255,255));
		}
		else if (catLeft.movex < 0)
		{
			sprite_handler->Draw(
				cat_left_image,
				&catSrcRect,
				NULL,
				&catLeftPosition,
				D3DCOLOR_XRGB(255,255,255));
		}
 
		//stop drawing
		sprite_handler->End();
 
		//stop rendering
		d3ddev->EndScene();
	}
 
	//display the back buffer on the screen
	d3ddev->Present(NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL);
 
	//check for escape key (to exit program)
	if (KEY_DOWN(VK_ESCAPE))
		PostMessage(hwnd, WM_DESTROY, 0, 0);
}
 
//frees memory and cleans up before the game ends
void Game_End(HWND hwnd)
{
 
	if (caveman_left_image != NULL)
		caveman_left_image->Release();
 
	if (caveman_right_image != NULL)
		caveman_right_image->Release();
 
	if (cat_left_image != NULL)
		cat_left_image->Release();
 
	if (cat_right_image != NULL)
		cat_right_image->Release();
 
	if (back != NULL)
		back->Release();
 
	if (sprite_handler != NULL)
		sprite_handler->Release();
 
}

Open in new window

0
 
Deepu AbrahamR & D Engineering ManagerCommented:
I can see two times  'move caveman to the left" is this needed?

		//move caveman to the left
		if (KEY_DOWN(VK_LEFT))
		{
			cavemanRight.x -= cavemanRight.movex;
			cavemanRight.y -= cavemanRight.movey;
		}
 
		//move caveman to the left
		if (KEY_DOWN(VK_LEFT))
		{
			cavemanLeft.x -= cavemanLeft.movex;
			cavemanLeft.y -= cavemanLeft.movey;
		}

Open in new window

0
 
psycho_bloodAuthor Commented:
I am sure duplicating code is not the most efficient way to program, considering all possible cases worked for me. So far, my code is still duplicated, but I might change it to a switch instead of nested if. What do you think?
0
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