The output of this program is "High" "High". Plz explain?

package scjp;

      public class A {
            private String runNow(){
                  return "High";
            }
      static class B extends A{
            public String runNow(){
                  return "Low";
            }
      }
      public static void main(String[] args) {
            A a[] = new B[]{new B(), new C()};
            for(A aa: a){
                  System.out.println(aa.runNow() + " ");
            }

      }

}
class  C extends A.B{
      public String runNow(){
            return "Out";
      }
}
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SunScreenCertAsked:
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fsze88Connect With a Mentor Commented:
In statement
for(A aa: a){
                  System.out.println(aa.runNow() + " ");
}

That's for loop looking for parent class A from class array a[]
in statement System.out.println(aa.runNow() + " ");
All of aa are running  parent class A function runNow() , so return "High" only
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SunScreenCertAuthor Commented:
so do you mean to say that the foreach loop is not suitable for polymorphic call
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WhiteMageConnect With a Mentor Commented:
I believe it's because the method runNow() is declared as private in class A, and class B is static, and class C is outside of class A.  There are two solutions to this (choose one of these):

1) Either declare runNow() as protected or public (this is the easiest and probably what you wanted) instead of private like you did.  You cannot override a private method and expect "A a = new B();" to work.  You would need to do "B b = new B();".  (If it's private, it's really not overriding it; it knows nothing about it!)

2) Remove static from class B.  Put class C in class A.  Then you'll need to make two methods in class A to allow access.  (I'm not sure if this will work; I don't have a compiler with me and can't test this.)


I hope that works and helped.
//Example of solution 1:
package scjp;
 
public class A {
            //this is it
            public String runNow(){
                  return "High";
            }
      static class B extends A{
            public String runNow(){
                  return "Low";
            }
      }
      public static void main(String[] args) {
            A a[] = new B[]{new B(), new C()};
            for(A aa: a){
                  System.out.println(aa.runNow() + " ");
            }
 
      }
 
}
class  C extends A.B{
      public String runNow(){
            return "Out";
      }
}
 
 
//Example of solution 2:
package scjp;
 
public class A {
            private String runNow(){
                  return "High";
            }
      class B extends A{
            public String runNow(){
                  return "Low";
            }
      }
 
      class  C extends A.B{
           public String runNow(){
                 return "Out";
           }
      }
 
      public B createB() { return new B(); }
      public C createC() { return new C(); }
 
      public static void main(String[] args) {
            A t = new A();
            A a[] = new B[]{t.createB(), t.createC()};
            for(A aa: a){
                  System.out.println(aa.runNow() + " ");
            }
 
      }
 
}

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fsze88Connect With a Mentor Commented:
foreach loop is not suitable for polymorphic call?
you can try this , the result should be "Low" "High"

public static void main(String[] args) {
            B b[] = new B[]{new B(), new C()};
            for(B bb: b){
                  System.out.println(bb.runNow() + " ");
            }

      }
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nkiggsConnect With a Mentor Commented:
I think fsze88's recent comment would override the base class' (class A) runNow() method with the extended class' (class B) runNow() method, hence it would produce "Low" "Low"

The trick is that the output is from the following "for" statement, which instantiates an object aa of class A that produces "High" and loops until the point when the statement a is true(ie. A aa: a) and executes the printing statement inside the for loop "High". Therefore the for loop body is only entered twice producing "High" "High":

for(A aa: a)
                  System.out.println(aa.runNow() + " ");
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WhiteMageConnect With a Mentor Commented:
No, it is suitable for polymorphism!  (And Java isn't true polymorphism like C++, it's more simulated, but that's another discussion.)

My 1st solution works.  Run it for yourself!  You only need to change runNow() in class A to be public or protected because you can't override a private method, since the derived children don't have access to it and don't even know it exists!  My 2nd solution doesn't work, and I'm not sure currently how to correct it, but it doesn't matter.  The solution (provided below) works!  I've run it, and I get "Low Out", like you would expect.  If runNow needs to be private, then I'm sure there is a way (you have to use non-static inner classes though.)
package scjp;
 
public class A {
            //EITHER USE PUBLIC OR PROTECTED HERE
            //This is the only thing I changed.
            public String runNow(){
                  return "High";
            }
      static class B extends A{
            public String runNow(){
                  return "Low";
            }
      }
      public static void main(String[] args) {
            A a[] = new B[]{new B(), new C()};
            for(A aa: a){
                  //Output is "Low\nOut"
                  System.out.println(aa.runNow() + " ");
            }
 
      }
 
}
class  C extends A.B{
      public String runNow(){
            return "Out";
      }
}

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