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manually assembling and linking gcc ouput source files

sean-keys
sean-keys asked
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Last Modified: 2012-05-10
I have gcc creating asm source files like this.

m68hc11-gcc -g -Wall -Werror -Winline -O -m68hcs12 -mshort -ffunction-sections -fomit-frame-pointer -msoft-reg-count=8 -mauto-incdec -fsigned-char -x cpp-output -S -o assembly/main.s preprocessedc/main.pp.c

from that output I can manually assemble it like this

m68hc11-as main.s -o main.o -m68hcs12

 or like this

m68hc11-gcc -g -Wall -Werror -Winline -O -m68hcs12 -mshort -ffunction-sections -fomit-frame-pointer -msoft-reg-count=8 -mauto-incdec -fsigned-char -c -o objects/freeEMS.o assembly/freeEMS.s
and it wont give me any errors

but when I try to link, I get this.
m68hc12-ld -defsym vectors_addr=0xF710 -m m68hc12elfb -T hc9s12xdp512elfb.x -o output/freeems-0.1.1-SNAPSHOT-Simple.elf objects/Simple.o objects/freeEMS.o objects/staticInit.o objects/main.o objects/tableLookup.o objects/init.o objects/utils.o objects/globalConstants.o objects/coreVarsGenerator.o objects/derivedVarsGenerator.o objects/fuelAndIgnitionCalcs.o objects/flashWrite.o objects/commsCore.o objects/blockDetailsLookup.o objects/interrupts.o objects/injectionISRs.o objects/ignitionISRs.o objects/commsISRs.o objects/realtimeISRs.o objects/miscISRs.o objects/FixedConfig1.o objects/FixedConfig2.o objects/IATTransferTable.o objects/CHTTransferTable.o objects/MAFTransferTable.o objects/TestTransferTable.o objects/FuelTables.o objects/FuelTables2.o objects/TimingTables.o objects/TimingTables2.o objects/TunableConfig.o objects/TunableConfig2.o objects/flashBurn.o
/usr/bin/m68hc11-ld: warning: cannot find entry symbol _start; defaulting to 0000c000
objects/Simple.o: In function `PrimaryRPMISR':
/home/fred/workspaces/home/freeems-vanilla/src/Simple.c:69: undefined reference to `_.tmp'
/home/fred/workspaces/home/freeems-vanilla/src/Simple.c:69: undefined reference to `_.z'
/home/fred/workspaces/home/freeems-vanilla/src/Simple.c:69: undefined reference to `_.xy'
/home/fred/workspaces/home/freeems-vanilla/src/Simple.c:69: undefined reference to `_.d1'
/home/fred/workspaces/home/freeems-vanilla/src/Simple.c:69: undefined reference to `_.d2'
/home/fred/workspaces/home/freeems-vanilla/src/Simple.c:69: undefined reference to `_.d3'
/home/fred/workspaces/home/freeems-vanilla/src/Simple.c:69: undefined reference to `_.d4'
/home/fred/workspaces/home/freeems-vanilla/src/Simple.c:69: undefined reference to `_.d5'
/home/fred/workspaces/home/freeems-vanilla/src/Simple.c:69: undefined reference to `_.d6'
and the list goes on

I can link from gcc, but I need to use an external linker that has special patches.

I'm not quite sure where I am going wrong.  Any input would be appreciated.
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Duncan RoeSoftware Developer
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Author

Commented:
Ah yeah seems to work with -l /mygcclibs/....  

except  this except.....

mc9s12x-elf-ld: /usr/lib/gcc-lib/m68hc11/3.3.6-m68hc1x-20060122/m68hc12/mshort/crt1.o: Relocations in generic ELF (EM: 53)
/usr/lib/gcc-lib/m68hc11/3.3.6-m68hc1x-20060122/m68hc12/mshort/crt1.o: could not read symbols: File in wrong format
make: *** [output/freeems-0.1.1-SNAPSHOT-Simple.elf] Error 1
seank@mob-sean:/work/workspaceCDT/binutils-mc9s12x/build-testing/testing/f-mc9/freeems-vanilla/src$

So I need to recompile gcc using my binutils package correct?
Duncan RoeSoftware Developer
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Commented:
Wasn't m68hc11-gcc built that way already? Is the output you posted from a run of m68hc11-gcc?
I wonder if there is another m68hc11 crt1.o somewhere that you should load manually - locate crt1.o|grep -w crt1 will show
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Author

Commented:
That's just it crt1.o needs to be built with my new binutils. Which I have done, but now I get this error when I try to link more than one source file.

mc9$ make all
mc9s12x-elf-as --gstabs  -o main.o main.s
mc9s12x-elf-as --gstabs  -o xgate.o xgate.s
mc9s12x-elf-ld -m mc9s12xelfb --defsym _start=0 -o test.elf main.o xgate.o

 in bfd_default_compatible about to compare 31 and 31
 in bfd_default_compatible about to compare 31 and 31
mc9s12x-elf-ld: failed to merge target specific data of file xgate.o
 in bfd_default_compatible about to compare 31 and 31
 input was 31 output was 31make: *** [test.elf] Error 1

My printf code says they are of the same target, so I dont see what the problem is.
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Author

Commented:
That did work for linking two files generated with asm.  But when I try the gcc example I get

 m68hc11-gcc -mc9s12x -mshort -Wl,-m,mc9s12xelfb --no-warn-mismatch -Wl,-defsym,_io_ports=0x1000 -o test.elf main.o vectors.o
/usr/bin/mc9s12x-elf-ld: failed to merge target specific data of file main.o
/usr/bin/mc9s12x-elf-ld: failed to merge target specific data of file vectors.o
/usr/bin/mc9s12x-elf-ld: failed to merge target specific data of file /usr/lib/gcc-lib/m68hc11/3.3.6-m68hc1x-20060122/mshort/libgcc.a(_regs_min.o)
/usr/bin/mc9s12x-elf-ld: failed to merge target specific data of file /usr/lib/gcc-lib/m68hc11/3.3.6-m68hc1x-20060122/mshort/libgcc.a(_premain.o)
/usr/bin/mc9s12x-elf-ld: failed to merge target specific data of file /usr/lib/gcc-lib/m68hc11/3.3.6-m68hc1x-20060122/mshort/libgcc.a(__exit.o)
/usr/bin/mc9s12x-elf-ld: failed to merge target specific data of file /usr/lib/gcc-lib/m68hc11/3.3.6-m68hc1x-20060122/mshort/libgcc.a(_map_data.o)
/usr/bin/mc9s12x-elf-ld: failed to merge target specific data of file /usr/lib/gcc-lib/m68hc11/3.3.6-m68hc1x-20060122/mshort/libgcc.a(_init_bss.o)

 in bfd_default_compatible about to compare 31 and 31
 in bfd_default_compatible about to compare 31 and 31
 in bfd_default_compatible about to compare 31 and 31
 in bfd_default_compatible about to compare 31 and 31
 in bfd_default_compatible about to compare 31 and 31
 input was 31 output was 31
 in bfd_default_compatible about to compare 31 and 31
 input was 31 output was 31
 in bfd_default_compatible about to compare 31 and 31
 input was 31 output was 31
 in bfd_default_compatible about to compare 31 and 31
 input was 31 output was 31
 in bfd_default_compatible about to compare 31 and 31
 input was 31 output was 31
 in bfd_default_compatible about to compare 31 and 31
 input was 31 output was 31
 in bfd_default_compatible about to compare 31 and 31
 input was 31 output was 31collect2: ld returned 1 exit status
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Author

Commented:
That did allow my sample project to build.  But my main project which requires newlib fails.  So i figured I could just recompile newlib.  It builds most of it except the last section.

Configured with: ../src/configure --prefix=/usr --infodir=/usr/share/info --mandir=/usr/share/man --with-gnu-as --with-gnu-ld --enable-nls --without-inclu$
Thread model: single
gcc version 3.3.6-m68hc1x-20060122
 /usr/lib/gcc-lib/m68hc11/3.3.6-m68hc1x-20060122/collect2 -m m68hc11elf -relax /usr/lib/gcc-lib/m68hc11/3.3.6-m68hc1x-20060122/crt1.o -L/usr/lib/gcc-lib/m$
/usr/lib/gcc-lib/m68hc11/3.3.6-m68hc1x-20060122/crt1.o:(.install4+0x1): undefined reference to `main'

I wonder if I my "mc9s12x-elf-ld: failed to merge target specific data of file" problem is really a problem.,,,,
nociSoftware Engineer
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What noci said.  Figure out how to compile and link a library using a stock compiler, do the same test with your compiler to make sure you have it down, then use -v to see the flags and other hidden stuff.

Author

Commented:
Thanks guys, I was able to use the information in this thread to get it working!
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