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NetBIOS Name and Host Name Resolution

Posted on 2010-11-21
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Please correct my statement if my understanding are wrong .

(a) The clients after Window 2000 , able to dynamic update their host name to DDNS through their DHCP  Server ( not DHCP client )  ??

(b) Window Server 2003 able to dynamic update its host name to DDNS through DHCP client ( not DHCP server ) even its TCP/IP  Statically configured  ???

(c) If the Window Server 2003 only has server name ( not FQDN ) , it can register its "server name " with DDNS  when WINS server is not available  ??

(d) Can XP Pro client dynamically register its computer name ( not FQDN ) to DDNS Server if  the WINS Server is not available ????  Through DHCP client or DHCP Server ??

(e) DNS can resolve FQDN as well as NetBIOS name ( computer name ) ???
 
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Question by:kcn
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by:rickhobbs
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To get a proper understanding of Windows 2003 DNS dynamic updates, please refer to:

http://support.microsoft.com/kb/816592
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by:Jason Watkins
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A. Correct, except Windows 2000 could do this too.

B. Correct, providing the client's network adapter is set to register it's host name in DNS (default).

C. Not really. DNS names are based on a hierarchy, not a flat name space. DNS names can be set to be resolved through NetBIOS in the DNS server settings.

D. No

E. Sort of
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by:kcn
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Firebar ,

in workstation or server , under TCP/IP properites > advanced button > WINS Tab > enable  NetBIOS over TCP/IP .

This "Enable NetBIOS over TCP/IP "  is  for what purpose ???  
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by:Jason Watkins
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To allow NetBIOS name requests to be sent through DNS.
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by:kcn
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Hi Firebar ,

So , this "enable NetBIOS over TCP/IP "  is request DNS Server to resolve NetBIOS Name ( computer name ) to IP Address ??  Am I right ?
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by:Jason Watkins
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That's right
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Chris Dent earned 500 total points
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Hey there,

b. All clients running Windows 2000 or higher can do this.

> So , this "enable NetBIOS over TCP/IP "  is request DNS Server to resolve NetBIOS Name ( computer name ) to IP Address ??  Am I right ?

No.

A DNS request is formed based on either the Primary DNS Suffix, or a DNS Suffix Search List (see "ipconfig /all" for both values). That you have NetBIOS enabled does not mean that you will send a NetBIOS request to the DNS server, DNS and NetBIOS remain distinct.

If GlobalNames is configured (Windows 2008 DNS Server or higher) then a DNS server can resolve single label names (just the hostname) without requiring a suffix. Hosts are still not able to dynamically register single-label names.

Chris
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by:kcn
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Chris ,
So, my (a) question is incorrect too because client running 2000 and after can dynamic register their
hostname (NOT single label name ) to DDNS through their DHCP client .  Please confirm (a)

In short , all client running 2000 and after can dynamically register their hostname to DDNS even they configured as static IP ?? ==> Please confirm this statement ..

Append Primary DNS Suffix  at DNS Tab ( TCP/IP properties > advanced button > DNS Tab ) is the ones will "add" Primary DNS Suffix (domain name ) on the single label name and make the client with single label name can register with DNS server ???   If the single label name is AA and Primary  DNS Suffix is  BB.com , then Append Primary DNS Suffix will make it as AA.BB.com ==> Please comment this statement .

Last question :-  "enable  NetBIOS over TCP/IP " is for what purpose ????
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by:Chris Dent
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> So, my (a) question is incorrect too because client running 2000 and after can dynamic register their

Via DHCP Client suggests a direct update with DNS (not via a DHCP Server). In that situation these are true:

  -  Windows 2000 or higher can update DNS directly without the assistance of a DHCP Server. The Update is performed by the DHCP Client Service.
  -  Microsoft DHCP Server (and some other DHCP servers) can update DNS for clients that are not able to update DNS directly (for example, Windows NT, or Windows 98)

The DHCP Client Service is responsible for updating DNS for clients using Static IP addresses. It is also responsible for updating DNS when DHCP has been told *not* to update on behalf of the client.

> is the ones will "add" Primary DNS Suffix (domain name ) on the single label name and make the client with single label name can register
> with DNS server ???  

No.

A connection can be assigned a Connection-Specific Suffix, but this is only used in Registration if you select "Use this connection's DNS suffix in DNS registration".

Otherwise the Primary DNS Suffix is used (if defined).

> Last question :-  "enable  NetBIOS over TCP/IP " is for what purpose ????

NetBIOS over TCP/IP is there for Legacy support (it is required for Windows NT domains). This is a different name resolution system from DNS, it's best not to mix the two up.

Typically NetBIOS uses the following techniques to resolve names back to IP addresses:

LMHosts (a text file in %systemroot%\system32\drivers\etc\hosts)
WINS
Broadcast

The order of WINS or Broadcast is defined by the NetBIOS Node Type. The default is Hybrid, meaning it will use WINS, then Broadcast if that fails.

NetBIOS is required to support things like Network Browsing (My Network Places). It is not required for something like an AD Domain to work.

Resolution of a single-label name ("computer", rather than "computer.domain.com") to an IP address can occur using either DNS or NetBIOS. Recent version of Windows check DNS first, if an answer is found there NetBIOS will not be used to resolve the name.

Note that NetBIOS can also be used to connect to File Sharing services (using UDP port 138 or TCP port 139). If NetBIOS is disabled connections to File Services will use SMB on TCP port 445.

Apologies if this only makes it more confusing.

Chris
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by:kcn
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Chris ,

Before I make thing confuse let me understand one thing first :-

1) At DNS Tab ( TCP/IP Properties > advanced Tab ) , can we divide "Append Primary and connection specifix DNS siffix "  into 2 sentenses as such "Append Primary DNS Suffix "  & "Append Connection Specific DNS Suffix "  ???  If can , please answer (2) and (3) too .

2) Setting  "Append Primary DNS SuffiX "  on XP Client machine  is for what purpose ??

3) Setting "Append Connection Specific DNS Suffix " on XP Client machine   is for what purpose ??


Thanks .
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by:Jason Watkins
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2. If the XP computer is joined to a Windows domain, the DNS name for that domain is set as the primary DNS suffix. This option allows one to specify a DNS suffix other than the domain's DNS suffix as the primary.

More information on XP's interaction with DNS can be found here; http://support.microsoft.com/kb/305553
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by:Chris Dent
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Both of these are used when executing DNS Queries.

That is, if I make a query like this:

nslookup computername

In 1 the Primary DNS Suffix will be appended to the query, the computer will ask DNS for "computername.domain.com", not just computername.

The Connection specific suffix comes in to play when that connection is used (instead of for all connections). It is used in the same as the Primary DNS Suffix otherwise, it helps build a query up to send to DNS.

Chris
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by:kcn
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Chris ,

Your comment : "In 1 the Primary DNS Suffix will be appended to the query, the computer will ask DNS for "computername.domain.com", not just computername. "...

So, the "computername" will get the name resolution from DNS server even it is only single label name ???  ==> please confirm this statement
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by:Chris Dent
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> So, the "computername" will get the name resolution from DNS server even it is only single label name ???  

The client builds the query, the DNS server never sees it as Single-Label. However, in essence, you are correct.

You can see this in action using the Debug switch for NsLookup. Run:

nslookup -d computername

Ignore the first section, look beneath the lines like this:

------------
Server:  your-server
Address:  1.2.3.4

------------

You will see sections for each DNS Suffix configured on your system if you look at each of the QUESTIONS. The process is repeated until the client runs out of Suffixes to try, or DNS gives it a positive answer.

Check "ipconfig /all" to see your list of DNS Suffixes. If you have more than one, running a query like this:

nslookup -d somethingthatdoesntexist

Will show it appending each of the suffixes in order as it tries to resolve the name. It will give up eventually.

Chris
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by:kcn
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Good , above first question is answered ..

Come to your previous comment on 2nd question "The Connection specific suffix comes in to play when that connection is used (instead of for all connections). It is used in the same as the Primary DNS Suffix otherwise, it helps build a query up to send to DNS."

"when that connection is used .. "   which connection .. I am confused ...
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by:Chris Dent
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The connection you assign the suffix to. You apply it in the properties for a specific adapter, it only comes into play with that specific interface is used.

Chris
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by:kcn
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In TCP/IP properties > Advanced Tab > DNS Tab >

DNS suffix for this connection (                               )

( / ) Register this connection's address in DNS
(  ) Use this connection's DNS suffix in DNS registration

How to set above stuffs , anything to do with "connection specfic DNS suffix " ??  

I really like to know how to use above stuffs .. Please teach ...
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by:Chris Dent
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> ( / ) Register this connection's address in DNS

Register the suffix for this connection in DNS. By default the Primary DNS Suffix will be used.

The IP Address associated with this adapter will be registered in DNS (if this client is handling registration and DHCP is not).

> (  ) Use this connection's DNS suffix in DNS registration

If a connection specific DNS suffix has been set, and this box is ticked the specified Suffix will be used instead of the Primary DNS Suffix for registration.

Chris
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by:kcn
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As I know , for XP Client wit single label computer name , it will get the name resolution as below order :

WINS
Broadcast
DNS

So, it will  use broadcast to resolve its single label name  first before look for DNS server help , am I right ?
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by:Chris Dent
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The order depends on the client (operating system), but you'll normally get these for Single-Label names:

Hosts
LMHosts
DNS
WINS
Broadcast

Or something very close to that.

Chris
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by:Suliman Abu Kharroub
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windows server 2003/XP:

hostname resolution process in order:

1.client cache /hosts file
2.DNS
3.Netbios name cache
4.wins
5. broadcast.
6.lmhosts
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by:kcn
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sulimanw ,

your hostname resolution process in order whether is similar to SINGLE LABEL name resolution process in order ??

Please confirm . Because I am asking Single Label Name resolution order .

Thanks .
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by:kcn
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From this link
http://www.comptechdoc.org/os/windows/wintcp/wtcpname.html ...

to me it look like for Window Client with Single Label Name , if go for single label name resolution , the "Broadcast" will come early before go for DNS help ( default setting in window client ) ..

Please help to confirm this .. Thanks.
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by:Chris Dent
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It's properly discussed here:

http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/bb727005.aspx

Check out figure 7.1 which states:

1. Local host name check
2. DNS Client resolver cache
3. DNS Server
4. NetBIOS Name cache
5. WINS server
6. Broadcast
7. LMHosts

It misses Hosts, Hosts goes between 2 and 3 in this example.

Notes:

 - This refers to Single-Label name resolution. 1, 2 and 3 are the only steps that apply to a multi-label name
 - It depends on Operating System version. This order has changed over the years as NetBIOS has gone out and DNS has come in.

Chris
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by:Chris Dent
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Apologies, Hosts is not missed, they do state that it is loaded into the DNS Client Resolver cache, meaning it is checked at the same time as 2.

Chris
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by:kcn
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Chris ,

Sorry , from the link you provided , it look to me it is discussing about Hostname resolution instead of Single Label Name resolution ???

I thought hostname is refered as FQDN   and NetBios Name is referred as computer name ( single label name ) ???
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by:Chris Dent
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It is, but it applies to single-label names; NetBIOS Name Resolution *only* applies to Single-label name resolution.

The dot is not a permissible character in a NetBIOS name. The name resolution order for multi-label names is trimmed down to 1 to 3 above.

Chris
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by:kcn
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I got it after read one more time ...

Thanks Chris and everyone ...
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by:Chris Dent
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No problem :)

Chris
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by:Jason Watkins
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I think I earned an assist here
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