Interfaces allow the construction of nonhierarchical type frameworks.I have not clearly understood this statement, concept.
Please advise. Any ideas, sugestions, sample code, links, resources highly appreciated. thanks in advance
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I once wrote a lot about interfaces in response to one of the EE questions, you may
read it here:
Interfaces allow the construction of nonhierarchical type frameworks -
this statement emphasizes that if inheritance in Java implies
strictly hierarchical structure because a class can inherit only
from one class, interfaces allow to attribute to a Java class
proprties of a wide range of types - a class can implement
as many interfaces as you like, which creates a network of connections between
types/classes which does not need to be hierarchical
A hierarchy is when class A extends B extends C.  A is derived from B which is derived from C.  It's a chain where each class has a single parent.  This means it's a hierarchy and is how Java does inheritance.

With interfaces, you're allowed to implement multiple interfaces at once.  So we can have:
class A implements I,J,K
class B implements I,J,K

both A and B implement the same classes, but they're not related to each other at all.  They don't have any of the same parent classes, so they're not part of a hierarchy.  It might look like they are derived from I,J,K - but they're implementing the interfaces, not deriving from classes.


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