What is a Smart Antenna ? brief explanation please ?

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Hello Guys,

I need to understand from scratch all about Smart Antenna, I know nothing about it and if you can please explain it in simple words and explain the difference between smart antenna's and traditional 'non-smart' antenna's, and what's so good/bad about them ? I would really appreciate all your answers.

Please include links to explanations, pictures, videos, all what could me explain and give a presentation about smart antennas.

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Any answers ?
Here is a link to some information and there are other links to more material referenced in this artincle.



@Rick O Shay

Thank you for your comment. but I've already read that and didn't exactly understand much. I need someone who already knows what smart antenna is to explain it to me please.
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What, exactly, do you want to know?

Rick_O_Shay's link provides an explanation of what it is and how it works.

If you truly want to learn how it works "from scratch" you need to start with 6th form (or higher) physics so you understand wave theory and vectors (and figuring vectors also uses calculus, which generally requires algebra and geometry as prerequisites).
AC electronics theory might help you understand it better, too (DC electronics theory is usually a prerequisite for that).



I know wave theory, vectors, calculus, algerba, geometry, ac electronics and dc electronics, please try to help me without  deviating from the subject.

Could you please explain the wiki page then
"Smart antenna
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Smart antennas (also known as adaptive array antennas, multiple antennas and recently MIMO) are antenna arrays with smart signal processing algorithms used to identify spatial signal signature such as the direction of arrival (DOA) of the signal, and use it to calculate beamforming vectors, to track and locate the antenna beam on the mobile/target. The antenna could optionally be any sensor.
Smart antenna techniques are used notably in acoustic signal processing, track and scan RADAR, radio astronomy and radio telescopes, and mostly in cellular systems like W-CDMA and UMTS.
Smart antennas have two main functions: DOA estimation and Beamforming.
Contents [hide]
1 Direction of arrival (DOA) estimation
2 Beamforming
3 Types of smart antennas
4 Limited Choice of EIA/CEA-909A Smart Antennas in the Marketplace
5 Extension of smart antennas
6 References
7 See also
[edit]Direction of arrival (DOA) estimation

The smart antenna system estimates the direction of arrival of the signal, using techniques such as MUSIC (Multiple Signal Classification), estimation of signal parameters via rotational invariance techniques (ESPRIT) algorithms, Matrix Pencil method or one of their derivatives. They involve finding a spatial spectrum of the antenna/sensor array, and calculating the DOA from the peaks of this spectrum. These calculations are computationally intensive.
Matrix Pencil is very efficient in case of real time systems, and under the correlated sources.

Beamforming is the method used to create the radiation pattern of the antenna array by adding constructively the phases of the signals in the direction of the targets/mobiles desired, and nulling the pattern of the targets/mobiles that are undesired/interfering targets. This can be done with a simple FIR tapped delay line filter. The weights of the FIR filter may also be changed adaptively, and used to provide optimal beamforming, in the sense that it reduces the MMSE between the desired and actual beampattern formed. Typical algorithms are the steepest descent, and LMS algorithms [4].
[edit]Types of smart antennas

Two of the main types of smart antennas include switched beam smart antennas and adaptive array smart antennas. Switched beam systems have several available fixed beam patterns. A decision is made as to which beam to access, at any given point in time, based upon the requirements of the system. Adaptive arrays allow the antenna to steer the beam to any direction of interest while simultaneously nulling interfering signals [3]. Beamdirection can be estimated using the so-called direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation methods [6].
In 2008, the United States NTIA began a major effort to assist consumers in the purchase of digital television converter boxes.[1] Through this effort, many people have been exposed to the concept of smart antennas for the first time. In the context of consumer electronics, a "smart antenna" is one that conforms to the EIA/CEA-909 Standard Interface.
[edit]Limited Choice of EIA/CEA-909A Smart Antennas in the Marketplace

Prior to the final transition to ATSC Digital television in the United States on June 11, 2009, two smart antenna models were brought to market:
RCA ANT2000 -- no longer available from retailers
DTA-5000 -- sometimes associated with the Sylvania brand name; no longer available from retailers
And two models are causing consumer confusion:
Although the Apex SM550 is capable of connecting to a CEA-909 port for the purpose of drawing electrical power, it is not a true smart antenna.[2]
The unfortunately-named Channel Master 3000A SMARTenna is a conventional antenna, not a smart antenna.[3]
[edit]Extension of smart antennas

Smart antenna systems are also a defining characteristic of MIMO systems, such as the IEEE 802.11n standard. Conventionally, a smart antenna is a unit of a wireless communication system and performs spatial signal processing with multiple antennas. Multiple antennas can be used at either the transmitter or receiver. Recently, the technology has been extended to use the multiple antennas at both the transmitter and receiver; such a system is called a multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) system. As extended Smart Antenna technology, MIMO supports spatial information processing, in the sense that conventional research on Smart Antennas has focused on how to provide a beamforming advantage by the use of spatial signal processing in wireless channels. Spatial information processing includes spatial information coding such as Spatial multiplexing and Diversity Coding, as well as beamforming.

http://www.stanford.edu/group/sarg/ : Smart Antenna Research Group.
http://www.mprg.org : Virginia Tech, Mobile and Portable & Radio research group
Frank B. Gross, "Smart Antennas for Wireless Communications with Matlab", McGraw-Hill, 2005
Handbook on Advancements in Smart Antenna Technologies for Wireless Networks, IGI 2008
http://users.ece.utexas.edu/~bevans/courses/ee381k/lectures/13_Array_Processing/lecture13/lecture13.pdf : Array Processing Tutorial"

What makes smart Antennas different from traditional antennas ?
Wikipedia's free to use, but copy/pasting entire articles really goes beyond the 'fair use' exemptions of copyright law.

A traditional directional antenna does not consist of multiple arrays and does not adapt to changing signal paths without manual intervention (e.g. by turning the rotor control)... reflected signals typically contribute 'ghost' images to the signal, having arrived slightly out of time with the direct signal.  

A smart antenna is essentially an omni-directional group of arrays that is tuned electronically to select only the elements picking up the strongest signals, and can also process the direct signal with reflected signals to help cancel noise and increase gain.



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