I finally got my Exchange 2010 server installed and mail flow seems to be working in and out. I can access exchange via OWA, internally and externally, without any issues.
I've enabled outlook anywhere and have configured it and autodiscover as described in the following link. http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/bb201695.aspx
I tried to test it by using https://www.testexchangeconnectivity.com/
however i get error messages when trying to load the page or the page never loads.
I then used the method here, http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/bb123573.aspx
to test autodiscover and everything succeeded.
When i go to my outlook client, whether internal or external, i create a new profile, choose ms exchange server, input the external url (i.e. mail.domain.com), and enter my username, but i always get an error message saying "The action could not be complete. The connection to the microsoft exchange server is unavailable. Outlook must be online or connected to complete this action"
I'm not sure what i'm doing wrong. Like i mentioned before, OWA access and mail flow work just fine.