Creating a row of data for every minute between two known dates

I am working in a medical database.  I want to summarize multiple vital signs (blood pressure, pulse, oxygen saturation, etc) into a single table, that show the values for each minute in a new row.  (Our EHR populates a value once a minute max).  The data is currently stored as ROWS in the table "Signals".... I am interested in grouping some vitals that occurred at the same time (putting results into COLUMNS).

The issue:  I can't simply use the timestamp of any given vital sign to connect the other vitals from that minute together, because no single vital sign is ALWAYS documented in every minute.  For instance, blood pressure is usually every 5 minutes, while pulse is usually every 1 minute (unless there is an issue with the monitor......).

I think if I can create a column of datetimes with 1 minute between each one, I could then connect the other vital signs at a mimute to the same row, since "PatientID" and "Time" could combine into a unique key for the added parameter.  The 1 minute intervals need to START at "AnesthesiaStartTime", and END at "AnesthesiaEndTime"

#AnesthesiaTimes.AnesthesiaStartTime - Defined in a temporary table

#AnesthesiaTimes.AnesthesiaEndTime - Defined in a temporary table


Final table will hopefully look something like the image attached (with more values tagged on to the end)

The items of interest are all found in the table "Signals"
Signals.PatientID
Signals.Time (when the vital sign is charted)
Signals.Value Expected table result
Warfarin162Asked:
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QlemoConnect With a Mentor Batchelor, Developer and EE Topic AdvisorCommented:
One way without need for generating intermediate pseudo-records is to use an outer join, using the time. However, that requires that probes are taken exactly on the same time, if taken. We can remove that restriction by e.g. cutting off the seconds, to make it more fuzzy.

First, you build a select for each particular vital sign - you will certainly have an ID to differ between blood pressure and pulse aso, and I will assume it is called "type".
Then we use those selects as tables, and join them together:
select at.patientID, coalesce(bp.time, p.time) as Time, bp.value as [Blood Pressure], p.value as [Pulse]
from #AnesthesiaTimes at
left join (select patientID, time, value from signals where type = 'Blood Pressure') bp
  on at.patientID = bp.patientID and bp.time between at.AnesthesiaStartTime and at.AnesthesiaEndTime
left join (select patientID, time, value from signals where type = 'Pulse') p
  on at.patientID = p.patientID  and  p.time between at.AnesthesiaStartTime and at.AnesthesiaEndTime
 and bp.time = p.time 

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You should get rid of seconds, if needed, if we change
  and bp.time = p.time

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to
  and bp.time - datepart(ss, bp.time) = p.time - datepart(ss, p.time)

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Warfarin162Author Commented:
Coalesce!  This works perfectly!

Thanks for teaching me a cool new trick :)
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