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String is immutable?

Posted on 2011-10-17
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Last Modified: 2013-11-23
At: http://javarevisited.blogspot.com/2010/10/why-string-is-immutable-in-java.html

It says print should have -->   B: TEST, A: TEST

But I get -->   B: TEST, A: Test

Q1: What am I missing?
Q2: Could you explain why and how String is immutable?

Thank you.
public class StringTest {
    public static void main(String[] args){
        // at: http://javarevisited.blogspot.com/2010/10/why-string-is-immutable-in-java.html
        // it says print line should have-->   B: TEST, A: TEST
        // but I get -->   B: TEST, A: Test
        String A = "Test";
        String B = "Test";
        //System.out.println("B: "+B+", A: "+A+"\n");
        System.out.println("B: "+"Test".toUpperCase()+", A: "+A+"\n");
    }
}

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Question by:Mike Eghtebas
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Expert Comment

by:for_yan
ID: 36982392
What else can you have:
 String A = "Test";
 System.out.println("B: "+"Test".toUpperCase()+", A: "+A+"\n");
Of course:
B: TEST,A: Test


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LVL 47

Expert Comment

by:for_yan
ID: 36982404


I ran it - nothing else can be printed - mutable or immutabe:
 String A = "Test";
 System.out.println("B: "+"Test".toUpperCase()+", A: "+A+"\n");

output:

B: TEST, A: Test
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LVL 47

Expert Comment

by:for_yan
ID: 36982450
They write here: "Imagine" - and how bad it would have been.
Nothing like that happens in fact.
---
1)IMAGINE StringPool facility without making string immutable , its not possible at all because in case of string pool one string object/literal e.g. "Test" has referenced by many reference variables , so if any one of them change the value others will be automatically gets affected i.e. lets say

String A = "Test"
String B = "Test"

Now String B called "Test".toUpperCase() which change the same object into "TEST" , so A will also be "TEST" which is not desirable.
-----
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Accepted Solution

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for_yan earned 2000 total points
ID: 36982531
No imagine our life if i'm writing:

String A = "Test;
String B = "Test";

and then

B = B.toUpperCase();

and after that A would also become uppercase?

No, that's absolutely not possible.

Java does mainatin some pool of strings and may reuse some memory,
and initially they can be represented by one area in memory
but it would take care that it would not happen this way, no worries.
So it woul create another string ion another place
would set it to upper case and then repoint the pointer for B,, but not for A.

So we should not worry about it.

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LVL 34

Author Closing Comment

by:Mike Eghtebas
ID: 36982572
thanks
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LVL 47

Expert Comment

by:for_yan
ID: 36982598
And immutable jsut means that
when it does
B = B.toUpperCase();

it does not go to every charcater and chnege the particular memory cell
from lower to upper, but rather creates a new String in a new place
with uppercase chracters and then changes tha pointer, so that in our code pointer
associated with B will be now pointing to uppercase string in iits new place
(so our varuiable in the program continues to be B, but teh actual numeric memory address
form this point will in fact be different).
Well, this is of course some simplification relative tio the physical processes with jvm interperting, etc,
but this undderstanding reflect the reality sufficiently well, so that
we could understand what is going on with our string variables
when we are writing java code
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