SharePoint 2010 and claim based Web application no adfs claim types

I created a new webapplicaiton for Claims Based Authentication integrated windows account.
When I look at a claim I want to see the user groups and other custom attributes, may be age.
My claim webpart don’t display the all the claim of the users by default. It just gives some group ids. With our going in ADFS route can we get roles and all groups and age attribute to the token.
How can I add Adding additional claims to a Trusted Identity Token Issuer in my case windows?
Without ADFS can I not get the group name and role for domain users accounts from AD. Like Teams A, is a security group in AD? I want to see that and be able to use this without going in ADFS route. What do I need to do in order to get all groups? I did not find any way to add claim types for windows Authentication claim provider.
http://schemas.microsoft.com/ws/2008/06/identity/claims/groupsid      SharePoint      Windows      S-1-5-21-1713817121-      
http://schemas.microsoft.com/ws/2008/06/identity/claims/groupsid      SharePoint      Windows      S-1-5-21-1713817121-      
http://schemas.microsoft.com/ws/2008/06/identity/claims/groupsid      SharePoint      Windows      S-1-5-21-1713817121-      
http://schemas.microsoft.com/ws/2008/06/identity/claims/groupsid      SharePoint      Windows      S-1-5-21-1713817121-      
http://schemas.microsoft.com/ws/2008/06/identity/claims/groupsid      SharePoint      Windows      S-1-5-21-1713817121-      
http://schemas.microsoft.com/ws/2008/06/identity/claims/groupsid      SharePoint      Windows      S-1-5-21-1713817121-      
http://schemas.microsoft.com/ws/2008/06/identity/claims/groupsid      SharePoint      Windows      S-1-1-0      
http://schemas.microsoft.com/ws/2008/06/identity/claims/groupsid      SharePoint      Windows      S-1-5-21-      
http://schemas.microsoft.com/ws/2008/06/identity/claims/groupsid      SharePoint      Windows      S-1-5-11      
http://schemas.microsoft.com/ws/2008/06/identity/claims/groupsid      SharePoint      Windows      S-1-5-64-10      

What am I missing. That group “TeamA” is available form people picker as it is a AD group. But I want to see it as a token part. If I implement ADFS I can pick any AD properties and map to incoming claim. but I am first trying to understand how domain users accounts get handled.

Regards
sunilprabhaAsked:
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