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how the normal user is able to change the /etc/passwd file though he is not having the permission in linux

how the normal user is  able to  change the  /etc/passwd file though he is not having the  write permission  to change the file in linux

and /etc/shadow  have only  read permission for  root user and no access for others

how the changes happening when they are changing the password
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greensuman
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greensuman
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farzanjCommented:
Well, there are certain pieces of information that user can change in the /etc/passwd file.  He can change the shell by using command chsh and his/her information using chfn.

In /etc/shadow, user can change his/her password using passwd, thus changing the file.

All of the above utilities can by run by common users with root privileges because
1.  These are all binaries.
2.  They all have UID set thus if you do ls -l you would see something like
-rwsr-xr-x 1 root shadow 81856 May  8  2010 /usr/bin/passwd
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systanCommented:
its not normal, it's impossible

or
maybe logged in as a normal user then changed permission using the "su"

or
maybe knows the administrator account, by hooking up when administrator types the user-name and password to logged in.

or
a linux hacker that waits for the user to logged with the network using administrators account.
This is one good reason why admin not to use full administrative account mode during logging-in in the internet or local network.
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Neil RussellTechnical Development LeadCommented:
When a user changes their password it is NOT the user that makes the changes, it is a process that runs with elevated priveledges.

Standard users do not, as you correctly stated, have the ability to directly chage these files, only via the tools that are provided.
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farzanjCommented:
A normal user DOES change these files by using the utilities I mentioned above.  Yes, these utilities of course run as process--every program runs as at least one process with at least one thread each.  But that is not the point.  The point is that set UID permission empowers a common user by running with the utility's own's effective UID, which in this case is root.  So a common user HAS the ability to change those files due to SUID of these binaries.

For further details take a look at
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Setuid
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