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Using "inverse arguments" in Excel formulas

Posted on 2012-04-06
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Last Modified: 2012-04-21
Hello,

It seems that not infrequently, I see "inverse  arguments" used in Excel formulas.  By inverse, I mean 1/B1:B15 rather than simply B1:B15.  Can someone explain the basic concepts underlying those types of arguments or point me to a source which does?

Thanks
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Question by:Steve_Brady
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by:leptonka
ID: 37817499
Hi,

I use it to count non-zero values, for example:
=COUNT(1/B1:B15) - confirm with Ctrl+Shift+Enter will give you the number of non-zero values (numbers) in the range, because 1/0=#DIV error.

(Yes, I know it could be done in different way, without array-entered formula. :-)

Cheers,
Kris
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dlmille earned 500 total points
ID: 37818460
Let's say you have a column B having some numeric values in it, and you want to find the first occurrence of a value that is greater than 25 - e.g., what row it is on:

=MATCH(1,1/(B1:B15>25),0)  'control-shift-enter as its an array formula

So, the B1:B15>25 piece resolves to an array of TRUE/FALSES.  The 1/(B1:B15>25) then resolves to an array of #DIV/0!'s or 1's.  Thus, the match searching for an exact value of 1 will return the position of the first 1/1 or 1 in the column where the value is > 25.

So, if B1:B15 had the values: {3;4;2;3;1;2;1;50;3;4;1;26;100;77;1}

the B1:B15>25 would resolve to: {FALSE;FALSE;FALSE;FALSE;FALSE;FALSE;FALSE;TRUE;FALSE;FALSE;FALSE;TRUE;TRUE;TRUE;FALSE}

the 1/(B1:B15>25) would resolve to: {#DIV/0!;#DIV/0!;#DIV/0!;#DIV/0!;#DIV/0!;#DIV/0!;#DIV/0!;1;#DIV/0!;#DIV/0!;#DIV/0!;1;1;1;#DIV/0!}

And now, that array can be utilized by many a function:

=MATCH(1,1/(B1:B15>25),0) - array entered - would resolve to:  8, as that's the first 1 in the array.  You could use INDEX/MATCH to return the first value (or the LOOKUP function - see below for last match example)

To find the LAST value in the column > 25, we can use the lookup function:

=LOOKUP(2,1/(B1:B15>25),B1:B15) - The lookup value is 2, which won't be found, so the last 1 is used, to return the month name from column E.  That's the neat thing about MATCH, LOOKUP, VLOOKUP, HLOOKUP - they all THINK that the data is sorted, so if you give it a large value to look for - and 2 is large enough for this particular comparison because of the 1/() math we give it, it returns the last occurrence of what we're looking for - always.

=LOOKUP(1,1/(B1:B15>25),B1:B15) - gives us the first occurrence of what we're looking for.  note we don't have to array enter the lookup function in these instances

PS - there's also formulas to find the 2nd match, 3rd match, etc., but that wouldn't involve using the inverse approach so I'll skip that.

re: leptonka's example can also be written as:

=COUNT(1/(B1:B15>25)) would give us the number of values > 25, or 4

tho in this instance using SUMPRODUCT or COUNTIF would be more efficient and easier to ascertain by others.  However, there is a use for this that is uniquely designed to use this type of setup:

Counting Unique instances in a range of cells!

=SUM(1/COUNTIF(B1:B15,B1:B15)) - array entered - would resolve to 8 unique values.  Why:

The COUNTIF(B1:B15,B1:B15) resolves to {3;2;2;3;4;2;4;1;3;2;4;1;1;1;4}
and the 1/COUNTIF(B1:B15,B1:B15) resolves to {0.333333333333333;0.5;0.5;0.333333333333333;0.25;0.5;0.25;1;0.333333333333333;0.5;0.25;1;1;1;0.25}

So summing that up, we get 8 - because 3 occurs 3 times, each 3 gets a value of 1/3, so is only counted once, the 4's occur 4 times, so each gets .25, and thus the 4's get counted once, etc.

And I'm sure there are more - check out that Contextures link and you'll find examples like this as well.

Bottom line, the 1/ARRAY resolves to TRUE/FALSES and thinking of ways you can use the 1's vs #DIV!0's or fractions (as in the last example) to ascertain what you're looking for via LOOKUP, MATCH, SUM, COUNT provides the fundamentals behind why these formulas are used.  Some pretty creative thinkers came up with this initially, but it starts to come naturally if you think through it like you're doing - pretty soon, you'll be building these "from memory" as I try to, lol (though I spend so much time with VBA it takes me a while and if I don't get it I start googling then AH-HAH, now I remember!).

Dave
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Author Comment

by:Steve_Brady
ID: 37876565
Dave , superb answer:  clear, well organized, concise but comprehensive, and enjoyable to read.  Many thanks!
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