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I got this question during an interview last friday and I would like to see your opinion about it.
I am not sure if I gave the best answer and I would like to compare with your suggestions.

"I have one machine in my domain and the internet is not working. What should be the causes?"
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To start with, the question is poorly asked.  "the internet is not working" is not really what is meant.  That is, the internet is working all of the time, but (possibly) the computer cannot access it.  My first response would be to (politely) ask for more information about what was observed and not what the supposed conclusion is.

I would start with a command prompt on the one computer and run Ipconfig to see what the computer's IP address is as well as the IP address of the default gateway.

Then I would ping the default gateway to confirm that I can get that far.

Then I would ping (an easy-to-remember and reliable address on the internet that responds to ping) to confirm that I can get through the gateway to the internet.

Then I would ping to confirm that name resolution is working correctly.

Then I would try browsing to with IE to see if the browser works.

Then I would try browsing with Firefox (or Chrome) to see if that browser works.

When you identify what doesn't work in that process, you will have a much better clue as to where to look next.

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