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Learning Database Design and Data Types

I'm learning about database design and have the following question.

If you choose a data type that works but is far larger of a data type then what is actually, will the poor selection of data type negativily  impact the performace of a data base and cause higher memory usage since data types and there values are stored in memory?
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It's best to choose the most appropriate datatype for your data (obviously), but in the real world, it's often of vanishingly small difference if you don't. On a modern computer, I suspect you'd need to work hard to see a differences between using an INT and a BOOL, even though one is 32 times the size of the other.

The place where it will make slightly more difference, if in using fixed-length vs. variable-length datatypes. Since a table with all fixed-length fields has mathematically knowable row start positions (row X starts at X x row-length-in-bytes bytes from the beginning of the table), it is supposed to make row look ups faster. Again, with a modern system, do your benchmarking. Your gains may be negligible compared to the cost to your design.
compdigit44Author Commented:

Is there software out there can will scan your DB servers do see if it meets best practices / normizaltion standards
compdigit44Author Commented:
Does anyone have any additional thoughts on this.
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